@phdthesis{Abt2019,
author = {Abt, Raimond},
title = {Implementing Aspects of Quantum Information into the AdS/CFT Correspondence},
doi = {10.25972/OPUS-18801},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-188012},
school = {Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
year = {2019},
abstract = {In recent years many discoveries have been made that reveal a close relation between quantum information and geometry in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this duality between a conformal quantum field theory (CFT) and a theory of gravity on Anti-de Sitter spaces (AdS) quantum information quantities in CFT are associated with geometric objects in AdS. Subject of this thesis is the examination of this intriguing property of AdS/CFT. We study two central elements of quantum information: subregion complexity -- which is a measure for the effort required to construct a given reduced state -- and the modular Hamiltonian -- which is given by the logarithm of a considered reduced state. While a clear definition for subregion complexity in terms of unitary gates exists for discrete systems, a rigorous formulation for quantum field theories is not known. In AdS/CFT, subregion complexity is proposed to be related to certain codimension one regions on the AdS side. The main focus of this thesis lies on the examination of such candidates for gravitational duals of subregion complexity. We introduce the concept of \textit{topological complexity}, which considers subregion complexity to be given by the integral over the Ricci scalar of codimension one regions in AdS. The Gauss-Bonnet theorem provides very general expressions for the topological complexity of CFT\(_2\) states dual to global AdS\(_3\), BTZ black holes and conical defects. In particular, our calculations show that the topology of the considered codimension one bulk region plays an essential role for topological complexity. Moreover, we study holographic subregion complexity (HSRC), which associates the volume of a particular codimension one bulk region with subregion complexity. We derive an explicit field theory expression for the HSRC of vacuum states. The formulation of HSRC in terms of field theory quantities may allow to investigate whether this bulk object indeed provides a concept of subregion complexity on the CFT side. In particular, if this turns out to be the case, our expression for HSRC may be seen as a field theory definition of subregion complexity. We extend our expression to states dual to BTZ black holes and conical defects. A further focus of this thesis is the modular Hamiltonian of a family of states \(\rho_\lambda\) depending on a continuous parameter \(\lambda\). Here \(\lambda\) may be associated with the energy density or the temperature, for instance. The importance of the modular Hamiltonian for quantum information is due to its contribution to relative entropy -- one of the very few objects in quantum information with a rigorous definition for quantum field theories. The first order contribution in \(\tilde{\lambda}=\lambda-\lambda_0\) of the modular Hamiltonian to the relative entropy between \(\rho_\lambda\) and a reference state \(\rho_{\lambda_0}\) is provided by the first law of entanglement. We study under which circumstances higher order contributions in \(\tilde{\lambda}\) are to be expected. We show that for states reduced to two entangling regions \(A\), \(B\) the modular Hamiltonian of at least one of these regions is expected to provide higher order contributions in \(\tilde{\lambda}\) to the relative entropy if \(A\) and \(B\) saturate the Araki-Lieb inequality. The statement of the Araki-Lieb inequality is that the difference between the entanglement entropies of \(A\) and \(B\) is always smaller or equal to the entanglement entropy of the union of \(A\) and \(B\). Regions for which this inequality is saturated are referred to as entanglement plateaux. In AdS/CFT the relation between geometry and quantum information provides many examples for entanglement plateaux. We apply our result to several of them, including large intervals for states dual to BTZ black holes and annuli for states dual to black brane geometries.},
subject = {AdS-CFT-Korrespondenz},
language = {en}
}
@phdthesis{Fleszar2018,
author = {Fleszar, Krzysztof},
title = {Network-Design Problems in Graphs and on the Plane},
edition = {1. Auflage},
publisher = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
address = {W{\"u}rzburg},
isbn = {978-3-95826-076-4 (Print)},
doi = {10.25972/WUP-978-3-95826-077-1},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-154904},
school = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
pages = {xi, 204},
year = {2018},
abstract = {A network design problem defines an infinite set whose elements, called instances, describe relationships and network constraints. It asks for an algorithm that, given an instance of this set, designs a network that respects the given constraints and at the same time optimizes some given criterion. In my thesis, I develop algorithms whose solutions are optimum or close to an optimum value within some guaranteed bound. I also examine the computational complexity of these problems. Problems from two vast areas are considered: graphs and the Euclidean plane. In the Maximum Edge Disjoint Paths problem, we are given a graph and a subset of vertex pairs that are called terminal pairs. We are asked for a set of paths where the endpoints of each path form a terminal pair. The constraint is that any two paths share at most one inner vertex. The optimization criterion is to maximize the cardinality of the set. In the hard-capacitated k-Facility Location problem, we are given an integer k and a complete graph where the distances obey a given metric and where each node has two numerical values: a capacity and an opening cost. We are asked for a subset of k nodes, called facilities, and an assignment of all the nodes, called clients, to the facilities. The constraint is that the number of clients assigned to a facility cannot exceed the facility's capacity value. The optimization criterion is to minimize the total cost which consists of the total opening cost of the facilities and the total distance between the clients and the facilities they are assigned to. In the Stabbing problem, we are given a set of axis-aligned rectangles in the plane. We are asked for a set of horizontal line segments such that, for every rectangle, there is a line segment crossing its left and right edge. The optimization criterion is to minimize the total length of the line segments. In the k-Colored Non-Crossing Euclidean Steiner Forest problem, we are given an integer k and a finite set of points in the plane where each point has one of k colors. For every color, we are asked for a drawing that connects all the points of the same color. The constraint is that drawings of different colors are not allowed to cross each other. The optimization criterion is to minimize the total length of the drawings. In the Minimum Rectilinear Polygon for Given Angle Sequence problem, we are given an angle sequence of left (+90°) turns and right (-90°) turns. We are asked for an axis-parallel simple polygon where the angles of the vertices yield the given sequence when walking around the polygon in counter-clockwise manner. The optimization criteria considered are to minimize the perimeter, the area, and the size of the axis-parallel bounding box of the polygon.},
subject = {Euklidische Ebene},
language = {en}
}
@unpublished{Dandekar2007,
author = {Dandekar, Thomas},
title = {Some general system properties of a living observer and the environment he explores},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-33537},
year = {2007},
abstract = {In a nice assay published in Nature in 1993 the physicist Richard God III started from a human observer and made a number of witty conclusions about our future prospects giving estimates for the existence of the Berlin Wall, the human race and all the rest of the universe. In the same spirit, we derive implications for "the meaning of life, the universe and all the rest" from few principles. Adams´ absurd answer "42" tells the lesson "garbage in / garbage out" - or suggests that the question is non calculable. We show that experience of "meaning" and to decide fundamental questions which can not be decided by formal systems imply central properties of life: Ever higher levels of internal representation of the world and an escalating tendency to become more complex. An observer, "collecting observations" and three measures for complexity are examined. A theory on living systems is derived focussing on their internal representation of information. Living systems are more complex than Kolmogorov complexity ("life is NOT simple") and overcome decision limits (G{\"o}del theorem) for formal systems as illustrated for cell cycle. Only a world with very fine tuned environments allows life. Such a world is itself rather complex and hence excessive large in its space of different states - a living observer has thus a high probability to reside in a complex and fine tuned universe.},
subject = {Komplex },
language = {en}
}
@phdthesis{Travers2007,
author = {Travers, Stephen},
title = {Structural Properties of NP-Hard Sets and Uniform Characterisations of Complexity Classes},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-27124},
school = {Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
year = {2007},
abstract = {This thesis is devoted to the study of computational complexity theory, a branch of theoretical computer science. Computational complexity theory investigates the inherent difficulty in designing efficient algorithms for computational problems. By doing so, it analyses the scalability of computational problems and algorithms and places practical limits on what computers can actually accomplish. Computational problems are categorised into complexity classes. Among the most important complexity classes are the class NP and the subclass of NP-complete problems, which comprises many important optimisation problems in the field of operations research. Moreover, with the P-NP-problem, the class NP represents the most important unsolved question in computer science. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the study of NP-complete-, and more generally, NP-hard problems. It aims at improving our understanding of this important complexity class by systematically studying how altering NP-hard sets affects their NP-hardness. This research is related to longstanding open questions concerning the complexity of unions of disjoint NP-complete sets, and the existence of sparse NP-hard sets. The second part of the thesis is also dedicated to complexity classes but takes a different perspective: In a sense, after investigating the interior of complexity classes in the first part, the focus shifts to the description of complexity classes and thereby to the exterior in the second part. It deals with the description of complexity classes through leaf languages, a uniform framework which allows us to characterise a great variety of important complexity classes. The known concepts are complemented by a new leaf-language model. To a certain extent, this new approach combines the advantages of the known models. The presented results give evidence that the connection between the theory of formal languages and computational complexity theory might be closer than formerly known.},
subject = {Berechnungskomplexit{\"a}t},
language = {en}
}
@phdthesis{Meister2006,
author = {Meister, Daniel},
title = {The complexity of membership problems for finite recurrent systems and minimal triangulations},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-18837},
school = {Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
year = {2006},
abstract = {The dissertation thesis studies the complexity of membership problems. Generally, membership problems consider the question whether a given object belongs to a set. Object and set are part of the input. The thesis studies the complexity of membership problems for two special kinds of sets. The first problem class asks whether a given natural number belongs to a set of natural numbers. The set of natural numbers is defined via finite recurrent systems: sets are built by iterative application of operations, like union, intersection, complementation and arithmetical operations, to already defined sets. This general problem implies further problems by restricting the set of used operations. The thesis contains completeness results for well-known complexity classes as well as undecidability results for these problems. The second problem class asks whether a given graph is a minimal triangulation of another graph. A graph is a triangulation of another graph, if it is a chordal spanning supergraph of the second graph. If no proper supergraph of the first graph is a triangulation of the second graph, the first graph is a minimal triangulation of the second graph. The complexity of the membership problem for minimal triangulations of several graph classes is investigated. Restricted variants are solved by linear-time algorithms. These algorithms rely on appropriate characterisations of minimal triangulations.},
subject = {Komplexit{\"a}t},
language = {en}
}