@phdthesis{Niebler2019,
author = {Niebler, Thomas},
title = {Extracting and Learning Semantics from Social Web Data},
doi = {10.25972/OPUS-17866},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-178666},
school = {Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
year = {2019},
abstract = {Making machines understand natural language is a dream of mankind that existed since a very long time. Early attempts at programming machines to converse with humans in a supposedly intelligent way with humans relied on phrase lists and simple keyword matching. However, such approaches cannot provide semantically adequate answers, as they do not consider the specific meaning of the conversation. Thus, if we want to enable machines to actually understand language, we need to be able to access semantically relevant background knowledge. For this, it is possible to query so-called ontologies, which are large networks containing knowledge about real-world entities and their semantic relations. However, creating such ontologies is a tedious task, as often extensive expert knowledge is required. Thus, we need to find ways to automatically construct and update ontologies that fit human intuition of semantics and semantic relations. More specifically, we need to determine semantic entities and find relations between them. While this is usually done on large corpora of unstructured text, previous work has shown that we can at least facilitate the first issue of extracting entities by considering special data such as tagging data or human navigational paths. Here, we do not need to detect the actual semantic entities, as they are already provided because of the way those data are collected. Thus we can mainly focus on the problem of assessing the degree of semantic relatedness between tags or web pages. However, there exist several issues which need to be overcome, if we want to approximate human intuition of semantic relatedness. For this, it is necessary to represent words and concepts in a way that allows easy and highly precise semantic characterization. This also largely depends on the quality of data from which these representations are constructed. In this thesis, we extract semantic information from both tagging data created by users of social tagging systems and human navigation data in different semantic-driven social web systems. Our main goal is to construct high quality and robust vector representations of words which can the be used to measure the relatedness of semantic concepts. First, we show that navigation in the social media systems Wikipedia and BibSonomy is driven by a semantic component. After this, we discuss and extend methods to model the semantic information in tagging data as low-dimensional vectors. Furthermore, we show that tagging pragmatics influences different facets of tagging semantics. We then investigate the usefulness of human navigational paths in several different settings on Wikipedia and BibSonomy for measuring semantic relatedness. Finally, we propose a metric-learning based algorithm in adapt pre-trained word embeddings to datasets containing human judgment of semantic relatedness. This work contributes to the field of studying semantic relatedness between words by proposing methods to extract semantic relatedness from web navigation, learn highquality and low-dimensional word representations from tagging data, and to learn semantic relatedness from any kind of vector representation by exploiting human feedback. Applications first and foremest lie in ontology learning for the Semantic Web, but also semantic search or query expansion.},
subject = {Semantik},
language = {en}
}
@phdthesis{Peng2019,
author = {Peng, Dongliang},
title = {An Optimization-Based Approach for Continuous Map Generalization},
edition = {1. Auflage},
publisher = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
address = {W{\"u}rzburg},
isbn = {978-3-95826-104-4},
doi = {10.25972/WUP-978-3-95826-105-1},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-174427},
school = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
pages = {xvi, 132},
year = {2019},
abstract = {Maps are the main tool to represent geographical information. Geographical information is usually scale-dependent, so users need to have access to maps at different scales. In our digital age, the access is realized by zooming. As discrete changes during the zooming tend to distract users, smooth changes are preferred. This is why some digital maps are trying to make the zooming as continuous as they can. The process of producing maps at different scales with smooth changes is called continuous map generalization. In order to produce maps of high quality, cartographers often take into account additional requirements. These requirements are transferred to models in map generalization. Optimization for map generalization is important not only because it finds optimal solutions in the sense of the models, but also because it helps us to evaluate the quality of the models. Optimization, however, becomes more delicate when we deal with continuous map generalization. In this area, there are requirements not only for a specific map but also for relations between maps at difference scales. This thesis is about continuous map generalization based on optimization. First, we show the background of our research topics. Second, we find optimal sequences for aggregating land-cover areas. We compare the A\$^{\!\star}\$\xspace algorithm and integer linear programming in completing this task. Third, we continuously generalize county boundaries to provincial boundaries based on compatible triangulations. We morph between the two sets of boundaries, using dynamic programming to compute the correspondence. Fourth, we continuously generalize buildings to built-up areas by aggregating and growing. In this work, we group buildings with the help of a minimum spanning tree. Fifth, we define vertex trajectories that allow us to morph between polylines. We require that both the angles and the edge lengths change linearly over time. As it is impossible to fulfill all of these requirements simultaneously, we mediate between them using least-squares adjustment. Sixth, we discuss the performance of some commonly used data structures for a specific spatial problem. Seventh, we conclude this thesis and present open problems.},
language = {en}
}
@misc{FunkenTscherner2019,
author = {Funken, Matthias and Tscherner, Michael},
title = {Jahresbericht 2018 des Rechenzentrums der Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
edition = {1. Auflage},
organization = {Rechenzentrum (Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg)},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-188265},
pages = {76},
year = {2019},
abstract = {Eine {\"U}bersicht {\"u}ber die Aktivit{\"a}ten des Rechenzentrums im Jahr 2018.},
subject = {Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
language = {de}
}
@unpublished{Dandekar2019,
author = {Dandekar, Thomas},
title = {Biological heuristics applied to cosmology suggests a condensation nucleus as start of our universe and inflation cosmology replaced by a period of rapid Weiss domain-like crystal growth},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-183945},
pages = {24},
year = {2019},
abstract = {Cosmology often uses intricate formulas and mathematics to derive new theories and concepts. We do something different in this paper: We look at biological processes and derive from these heuristics so that the revised cosmology agrees with astronomical observations but does also agree with standard biological observations. We show that we then have to replace any type of singularity at the start of the universe by a condensation nucleus and that the very early period of the universe usually assumed to be inflation has to be replaced by a period of rapid crystal growth as in Weiss magnetization domains. Impressively, these minor modifications agree well with astronomical observations including removing the strong inflation perturbations which were never observed in the recent BICEP2 experiments. Furthermore, looking at biological principles suggests that such a new theory with a condensation nucleus at start and a first rapid phase of magnetization-like growth of the ordered, physical laws obeying lattice we live in is in fact the only convincing theory of the early phases of our universe that also is compatible with current observations. We show in detail in the following that such a process of crystal creation, breaking of new crystal seeds and ultimate evaporation of the present crystal readily leads over several generations to an evolution and selection of better, more stable and more self-organizing crystals. Moreover, this explains the "fine-tuning" question why our universe is fine-tuned to favor life: Our Universe is so self-organizing to have enough offspring and the detailed physics involved is at the same time highly favorable for all self-organizing processes including life. This biological theory contrasts with current standard inflation cosmologies. The latter do not perform well in explaining any phenomena of sophisticated structure creation or self-organization. As proteins can only thermodynamically fold by increasing the entropy in the solution around them we suggest for cosmology a condensation nucleus for a universe can form only in a "chaotic ocean" of string-soup or quantum foam if the entropy outside of the nucleus rapidly increases. We derive an interaction potential for 1 to n-dimensional strings or quantum-foams and show that they allow only 1D, 2D, 4D or octonion interactions. The latter is the richest structure and agrees to the E8 symmetry fundamental to particle physics and also compatible with the ten dimensional string theory E8 which is part of the M-theory. Interestingly, any other interactions of other dimensionality can be ruled out using Hurwitz compositional theorem. Crystallization explains also extremely well why we have only one macroscopic reality and where the worldlines of alternative trajectories exist: They are in other planes of the crystal and for energy reasons they crystallize mostly at the same time, yielding a beautiful and stable crystal. This explains decoherence and allows to determine the size of Planck´s quantum h (very small as separation of crystal layers by energy is extremely strong). Ultimate dissolution of real crystals suggests an explanation for dark energy agreeing with estimates for the "big rip". The halo distribution of dark matter favoring galaxy formation is readily explained by a crystal seed starting with unit cells made of normal and dark matter. That we have only matter and not antimatter can be explained as there may be right handed mattercrystals and left-handed antimatter crystals. Similarly, real crystals are never perfect and we argue that exactly such irregularities allow formation of galaxies, clusters and superclusters. Finally, heuristics from genetics suggest to look for a systems perspective to derive correct vacuum and Higgs Boson energies.},
language = {en}
}
@phdthesis{Fleszar2018,
author = {Fleszar, Krzysztof},
title = {Network-Design Problems in Graphs and on the Plane},
edition = {1. Auflage},
publisher = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
address = {W{\"u}rzburg},
isbn = {978-3-95826-076-4 (Print)},
doi = {10.25972/WUP-978-3-95826-077-1},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-154904},
school = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
pages = {xi, 204},
year = {2018},
abstract = {A network design problem defines an infinite set whose elements, called instances, describe relationships and network constraints. It asks for an algorithm that, given an instance of this set, designs a network that respects the given constraints and at the same time optimizes some given criterion. In my thesis, I develop algorithms whose solutions are optimum or close to an optimum value within some guaranteed bound. I also examine the computational complexity of these problems. Problems from two vast areas are considered: graphs and the Euclidean plane. In the Maximum Edge Disjoint Paths problem, we are given a graph and a subset of vertex pairs that are called terminal pairs. We are asked for a set of paths where the endpoints of each path form a terminal pair. The constraint is that any two paths share at most one inner vertex. The optimization criterion is to maximize the cardinality of the set. In the hard-capacitated k-Facility Location problem, we are given an integer k and a complete graph where the distances obey a given metric and where each node has two numerical values: a capacity and an opening cost. We are asked for a subset of k nodes, called facilities, and an assignment of all the nodes, called clients, to the facilities. The constraint is that the number of clients assigned to a facility cannot exceed the facility's capacity value. The optimization criterion is to minimize the total cost which consists of the total opening cost of the facilities and the total distance between the clients and the facilities they are assigned to. In the Stabbing problem, we are given a set of axis-aligned rectangles in the plane. We are asked for a set of horizontal line segments such that, for every rectangle, there is a line segment crossing its left and right edge. The optimization criterion is to minimize the total length of the line segments. In the k-Colored Non-Crossing Euclidean Steiner Forest problem, we are given an integer k and a finite set of points in the plane where each point has one of k colors. For every color, we are asked for a drawing that connects all the points of the same color. The constraint is that drawings of different colors are not allowed to cross each other. The optimization criterion is to minimize the total length of the drawings. In the Minimum Rectilinear Polygon for Given Angle Sequence problem, we are given an angle sequence of left (+90°) turns and right (-90°) turns. We are asked for an axis-parallel simple polygon where the angles of the vertices yield the given sequence when walking around the polygon in counter-clockwise manner. The optimization criteria considered are to minimize the perimeter, the area, and the size of the axis-parallel bounding box of the polygon.},
subject = {Euklidische Ebene},
language = {en}
}
@misc{FunkenTscherner2018,
author = {Funken, Matthias and Tscherner, Michael},
title = {Jahresbericht 2017 des Rechenzentrums der Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
edition = {1. Auflage},
organization = {Rechenzentrum (Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg)},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-168537},
pages = {68},
year = {2018},
abstract = {Eine {\"U}bersicht {\"u}ber die Aktivit{\"a}ten des Rechenzentrums im Jahr 2017.},
subject = {Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
language = {de}
}
@phdthesis{Wojtkowiak2018,
author = {Wojtkowiak, Harald},
title = {Planungssystem zur Steigerung der Autonomie von Kleinstsatelliten},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-163569},
school = {Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg},
year = {2018},
abstract = {Der Betrieb von Satelliten wird sich in Zukunft gravierend {\"a}ndern. Die bisher ausge{\"u}bte konventionelle Vorgehensweise, bei der die Planung der vom Satelliten auszuf{\"u}hrenden Aktivit{\"a}ten sowie die Kontrolle hier{\"u}ber ausschließlich vom Boden aus erfolgen, st{\"o}ßt bei heutigen Anwendungen an ihre Grenzen. Im schlimmsten Fall verhindert dieser Umstand sogar die Erschließung bisher ungenutzter M{\"o}glichkeiten. Der Gewinn eines Satelliten, sei es in Form wissenschaftlicher Daten oder der Vermarktung satellitengest{\"u}tzter Dienste, wird daher nicht optimal ausgesch{\"o}pft. Die Ursache f{\"u}r dieses Problem l{\"a}sst sich im Grunde auf eine ausschlaggebende Tatsache zur{\"u}ckf{\"u}hren: Konventionelle Satelliten k{\"o}nnen ihr Verhalten, d.h. die Folge ihrer T{\"a}tigkeiten, nicht eigenst{\"a}ndig anpassen. Stattdessen erstellt das Bedienpersonal am Boden - vor allem die Operatoren - mit Hilfe von Planungssoftware feste Ablaufpl{\"a}ne, die dann in Form von Kommandosequenzen von den Bodenstationen aus an die jeweiligen Satelliten hochgeladen werden. Dort werden die Befehle lediglich {\"u}berpr{\"u}ft, interpretiert und strikt ausgef{\"u}hrt. Die Abarbeitung erfolgt linear. Situationsbedingte {\"A}nderungen, wie sie vergleichsweise bei der Codeausf{\"u}hrung von Softwareprogrammen durch Kontrollkonstrukte, zum Beispiel Schleifen und Verzweigungen, {\"u}blich sind, sind typischerweise nicht vorgesehen. Der Operator ist daher die einzige Instanz, die das Verhalten des Satelliten mittels Kommandierung, per Upload, beeinflussen kann, und auch nur dann, wenn ein direkter Funkkontakt zwischen Satellit und Bodenstation besteht. Die dadurch m{\"o}glichen Reaktionszeiten des Satelliten liegen bestenfalls bei einigen Sekunden, falls er sich im Wirkungsbereich der Bodenstation befindet. Außerhalb des Kontaktfensters kann sich die Zeitschranke, gegeben durch den Orbit und die aktuelle Position des Satelliten, von einigen Minuten bis hin zu einigen Stunden erstrecken. Die Signallaufzeiten der Funk{\"u}bertragung verl{\"a}ngern die Reaktionszeiten um weitere Sekunden im erdnahen Bereich. Im interplanetaren Raum erstrecken sich die Zeitspannen aufgrund der immensen Entfernungen sogar auf mehrere Minuten. Dadurch bedingt liegt die derzeit technologisch m{\"o}gliche, bodengest{\"u}tzte, Reaktionszeit von Satelliten bestenfalls im Bereich von einigen Sekunden. Diese Einschr{\"a}nkung stellt ein schweres Hindernis f{\"u}r neuartige Satellitenmissionen, bei denen insbesondere nichtdeterministische und kurzzeitige Ph{\"a}nomene (z.B. Blitze und Meteoreintritte in die Erdatmosph{\"a}re) Gegenstand der Beobachtungen sind, dar. Die langen Reaktionszeiten des konventionellen Satellitenbetriebs verhindern die Realisierung solcher Missionen, da die verz{\"o}gerte Reaktion erst erfolgt, nachdem das zu beobachtende Ereignis bereits abgeschlossen ist. Die vorliegende Dissertation zeigt eine M{\"o}glichkeit, das durch die langen Reaktionszeiten entstandene Problem zu l{\"o}sen, auf. Im Zentrum des L{\"o}sungsansatzes steht dabei die Autonomie. Im Wesentlichen geht es dabei darum, den Satelliten mit der F{\"a}higkeit auszustatten, sein Verhalten, d.h. die Folge seiner T{\"a}tigkeiten, eigenst{\"a}ndig zu bestimmen bzw. zu {\"a}ndern. Dadurch wird die direkte Abh{\"a}ngigkeit des Satelliten vom Operator bei Reaktionen aufgehoben. Im Grunde wird der Satellit in die Lage versetzt, sich selbst zu kommandieren. Die Idee der Autonomie wurde im Rahmen der zugrunde liegenden Forschungsarbeiten umgesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist ein autonomes Planungssystem. Dabei handelt es sich um ein Softwaresystem, mit dem sich autonomes Verhalten im Satelliten realisieren l{\"a}sst. Es kann an unterschiedliche Satellitenmissionen angepasst werden. Ferner deckt es verschiedene Aspekte des autonomen Satellitenbetriebs, angefangen bei der generellen Entscheidungsfindung der T{\"a}tigkeiten, {\"u}ber die zeitliche Ablaufplanung unter Einbeziehung von Randbedingungen (z.B. Ressourcen) bis hin zur eigentlichen Ausf{\"u}hrung, d.h. Kommandierung, ab. Das Planungssystem kommt als Anwendung in ASAP, einer autonomen Sensorplattform, zum Einsatz. Es ist ein optisches System und dient der Detektion von kurzzeitigen Ph{\"a}nomenen und Ereignissen in der Erdatmosph{\"a}re. Die Forschungsarbeiten an dem autonomen Planungssystem, an ASAP sowie an anderen zu diesen in Bezug stehenden Systemen wurden an der Professur f{\"u}r Raumfahrttechnik des Lehrstuhls Informatik VIII der Julius-Maximilians-Universit{\"a}t W{\"u}rzburg durchgef{\"u}hrt.},
subject = {Planungssystem},
language = {de}
}
@article{PfitznerMayNuechter2018,
author = {Pfitzner, Christian and May, Stefan and N{\"u}chter, Andreas},
title = {Body weight estimation for dose-finding and health monitoring of lying, standing and walking patients based on RGB-D data},
series = {Sensors},
volume = {18},
journal = {Sensors},
number = {5},
doi = {10.3390/s18051311},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-176642},
pages = {1311},
year = {2018},
abstract = {This paper describes the estimation of the body weight of a person in front of an RGB-D camera. A survey of different methods for body weight estimation based on depth sensors is given. First, an estimation of people standing in front of a camera is presented. Second, an approach based on a stream of depth images is used to obtain the body weight of a person walking towards a sensor. The algorithm first extracts features from a point cloud and forwards them to an artificial neural network (ANN) to obtain an estimation of body weight. Besides the algorithm for the estimation, this paper further presents an open-access dataset based on measurements from a trauma room in a hospital as well as data from visitors of a public event. In total, the dataset contains 439 measurements. The article illustrates the efficiency of the approach with experiments with persons lying down in a hospital, standing persons, and walking persons. Applicable scenarios for the presented algorithm are body weight-related dosing of emergency patients.},
language = {en}
}
@article{PetschkeStaab2018,
author = {Petschke, Danny and Staab, Torsten E.M.},
title = {DLTPulseGenerator: a library for the simulation of lifetime spectra based on detector-output pulses},
series = {SoftwareX},
volume = {7},
journal = {SoftwareX},
doi = {10.1016/j.softx.2018.04.002},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-176883},
pages = {122-128},
year = {2018},
abstract = {The quantitative analysis of lifetime spectra relevant in both life and materials sciences presents one of the ill-posed inverse problems and, hence, leads to most stringent requirements on the hardware specifications and the analysis algorithms. Here we present DLTPulseGenerator, a library written in native C++ 11, which provides a simulation of lifetime spectra according to the measurement setup. The simulation is based on pairs of non-TTL detector output-pulses. Those pulses require the Constant Fraction Principle (CFD) for the determination of the exact timing signal and, thus, the calculation of the time difference i.e. the lifetime. To verify the functionality, simulation results were compared to experimentally obtained data using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) on pure tin.},
language = {en}
}
@phdthesis{Budig2018,
author = {Budig, Benedikt},
title = {Extracting Spatial Information from Historical Maps: Algorithms and Interaction},
edition = {1. Auflage},
publisher = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
address = {W{\"u}rzburg},
isbn = {978-3-95826-092-4},
doi = {10.25972/WUP-978-3-95826-093-1},
url = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-160955},
school = {W{\"u}rzburg University Press},
pages = {viii, 160},
year = {2018},
abstract = {Historical maps are fascinating documents and a valuable source of information for scientists of various disciplines. Many of these maps are available as scanned bitmap images, but in order to make them searchable in useful ways, a structured representation of the contained information is desirable. This book deals with the extraction of spatial information from historical maps. This cannot be expected to be solved fully automatically (since it involves difficult semantics), but is also too tedious to be done manually at scale. The methodology used in this book combines the strengths of both computers and humans: it describes efficient algorithms to largely automate information extraction tasks and pairs these algorithms with smart user interactions to handle what is not understood by the algorithm. The effectiveness of this approach is shown for various kinds of spatial documents from the 16th to the early 20th century.},
subject = {Karte},
language = {en}
}