Dokument-ID Dokumenttyp Verfasser/Autoren Herausgeber Haupttitel Abstract Auflage Verlagsort Verlag Erscheinungsjahr Seitenzahl Schriftenreihe Titel Schriftenreihe Bandzahl ISBN Quelle der Hochschulschrift Konferenzname Quelle:Titel Quelle:Jahrgang Quelle:Heftnummer Quelle:Erste Seite Quelle:Letzte Seite URN DOI Abteilungen
OPUS4-234 Dissertation Kosub, Sven Complexity and Partitions Computational complexity theory usually investigates the complexity of sets, i.e., the complexity of partitions into two parts. But often it is more appropriate to represent natural problems by partitions into more than two parts. A particularly interesting class of such problems consists of classification problems for relations. For instance, a binary relation R typically defines a partitioning of the set of all pairs (x,y) into four parts, classifiable according to the cases where R(x,y) and R(y,x) hold, only R(x,y) or only R(y,x) holds or even neither R(x,y) nor R(y,x) is true. By means of concrete classification problems such as Graph Embedding or Entailment (for propositional logic), this thesis systematically develops tools, in shape of the boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions and its refinements, for the qualitative analysis of the complexity of partitions generated by NP-relations. The Boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions is introduced as a generalization of the well-known and well-studied Boolean hierarchy (of sets) over NP. Whereas the latter hierarchy has a very simple structure, the situation is much more complicated for the case of partitions into at least three parts. To get an idea of this hierarchy, alternative descriptions of the partition classes are given in terms of finite, labeled lattices. Based on these characterizations the Embedding Conjecture is established providing the complete information on the structure of the hierarchy. This conjecture is supported by several results. A natural extension of the Boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions emerges from the lattice-characterization of its classes by considering partition classes generated by finite, labeled posets. It turns out that all significant ideas translate from the case of lattices. The induced refined Boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions enables us more accuratly capturing the complexity of certain relations (such as Graph Embedding) and a description of projectively closed partition classes. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2808 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-236 Dissertation Schmitz, Heinz The Forbidden Pattern Approach to Concatenation Hierarchies The thesis looks at the question asking for the computability of the dot-depth of star-free regular languages. Here one has to determine for a given star-free regular language the minimal number of alternations between concatenation on one hand, and intersection, union, complement on the other hand. This question was first raised in 1971 (Brzozowski/Cohen) and besides the extended star-heights problem usually refered to as one of the most difficult open questions on regular languages. The dot-depth problem can be captured formally by hierarchies of classes of star-free regular languages B(0), B(1/2), B(1), B(3/2),... and L(0), L(1/2), L(1), L(3/2),.... which are defined via alternating the closure under concatenation and Boolean operations, beginning with single alphabet letters. Now the question of dot-depth is the question whether these hierarchy classes have decidable membership problems. The thesis makes progress on this question using the so-called forbidden pattern approach: Classes of regular languages are characterized in terms of patterns in finite automata (subgraphs in the transition graph) that are not allowed. Such a characterization immediately implies the decidability of the respective class, since the absence of a certain pattern in a given automaton can be effectively verified. Before this work, the decidability of B(0), B(1/2), B(1) and L(0), L(1/2), L(1), L(3/2) were known. Here a detailed study of these classes with help of forbidden patterns is given which leads to new insights into their inner structure. Furthermore, the decidability of B(3/2) is proven. Based on these results a theory of pattern iteration is developed which leads to the introduction of two new hierarchies of star-free regular languages. These hierarchies are decidable on one hand, on the other hand they are in close connection to the classes B(n) and L(n). It remains an open question here whether they may in fact coincide. Some evidence is given in favour of this conjecture which opens a new way to attack the dot-depth problem. Moreover, it is shown that the class L(5/2) is decidable in the restricted case of a two-letter alphabet. 2000 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2832 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-237 Dissertation Wirth, Hans-Christoph Multicriteria Approximation of Network Design and Network Upgrade Problems Network planning has come to great importance during the past decades. Today's telecommunication, traffic systems, and logistics would not have been evolved to the current state without careful analysis of the underlying network problems and precise implementation of the results obtained from those examinations. Graphs with node and arc attributes are a very useful tool to model realistic applications, while on the other hand they are well understood in theory. We investigate network design problems which are motivated particularly from applications in communication networks and logistics. Those problems include the search for homogeneous subgraphs in edge labeled graphs where either the total number of labels or the reload cost are subject to optimize. Further, we investigate some variants of the dial a ride problem. On the other hand, we use node and edge upgrade models to deal with the fact that in many cases one prefers to change existing networks rather than implementing a newly computed solution from scratch. We investigate the construction of bottleneck constrained forests under a node upgrade model, as well as several flow cost problems under a edge based upgrade model. All problems are examined within a framework of multi-criteria optimization. Many of the problems can be shown to be NP-hard, with the consequence that, under the widely accepted assumption that P is not equal to NP, there cannot exist efficient algorithms for solving the problems. This motivates the development of approximation algorithms which compute near-optimal solutions with provable performance guarantee in polynomial time. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2845 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-238 Dissertation Glaßer, Christian Forbidden-Patterns and Word Extensions for Concatenation Hierarchies Starfree regular languages can be build up from alphabet letters by using only Boolean operations and concatenation. The complexity of these languages can be measured with the so-called dot-depth. This measure leads to concatenation hierarchies like the dot-depth hierarchy (DDH) and the closely related Straubing-Thérien hierarchy (STH). The question whether the single levels of these hierarchies are decidable is still open and is known as the dot-depth problem. In this thesis we prove/reprove the decidability of some lower levels of both hierarchies. More precisely, we characterize these levels in terms of patterns in finite automata (subgraphs in the transition graph) that are not allowed. Therefore, such characterizations are called forbidden-pattern characterizations. The main results of the thesis are as follows: forbidden-pattern characterization for level 3/2 of the DDH (this implies the decidability of this level) decidability of the Boolean hierarchy over level 1/2 of the DDH definition of decidable hierarchies having close relations to the DDH and STH Moreover, we prove/reprove the decidability of the levels 1/2 and 3/2 of both hierarchies in terms of forbidden-pattern characterizations. We show the decidability of the Boolean hierarchies over level 1/2 of the DDH and over level 1/2 of the STH. A technique which uses word extensions plays the central role in the proofs of these results. With this technique it is possible to treat the levels 1/2 and 3/2 of both hierarchies in a uniform way. Furthermore, it can be used to prove the decidability of the mentioned Boolean hierarchies. Among other things we provide a combinatorial tool that allows to partition words of arbitrary length into factors of bounded length such that every second factor u leads to a loop with label u in a given finite automaton. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-1179153 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-2 Dissertation Reith, Steffen Generalized Satisfiability Problems In the last 40 years, complexity theory has grown to a rich and powerful field in theoretical computer science. The main task of complexity theory is the classification of problems with respect to their consumption of resources (e.g., running time or required memory). To study the computational complexity (i.e., consumption of resources) of problems, similar problems are grouped into so called complexity classes. During the systematic study of numerous problems of practical relevance, no efficient algorithm for a great number of studied problems was found. Moreover, it was unclear whether such algorithms exist. A major breakthrough in this situation was the introduction of the complexity classes P and NP and the identification of hardest problems in NP. These hardest problems of NP are nowadays known as NP-complete problems. One prominent example of an NP-complete problem is the satisfiability problem of propositional formulas (SAT). Here we get a propositional formula as an input and it must be decided whether an assignment for the propositional variables exists, such that this assignment satisfies the given formula. The intensive study of NP led to numerous related classes, e.g., the classes of the polynomial-time hierarchy PH, P, #P, PP, NL, L and #L. During the study of these classes, problems related to propositional formulas were often identified to be complete problems for these classes. Hence some questions arise: Why is SAT so hard to solve? Are there modifications of SAT which are complete for other well-known complexity classes? In the context of these questions a result by E. Post is extremely useful. He identified and characterized all classes of Boolean functions being closed under superposition. It is possible to study problems which are connected to generalized propositional logic by using this result, which was done in this thesis. Hence, many different problems connected to propositional logic were studied and classified with respect to their computational complexity, clearing the borderline between easy and hard problems. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-74 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1280 Dissertation Heck, Klaus Wireless LAN performance studies in the context of 4G networks Wireless communication is nothing new. The first data transmissions based on electromagnetic waves have been successfully performed at the end of the 19th century. However, it took almost another century until the technology was ripe for mass market. The first mobile communication systems based on the transmission of digital data were introduced in the late 1980s. Within just a couple of years they have caused a revolution in the way people communicate. The number of cellular phones started to outnumber the fixed telephone lines in many countries and is still rising. New technologies in 3G systems, such as UMTS, allow higher data rates and support various kinds of multimedia services. Nevertheless, the end of the road in wireless communication is far from being reached. In the near future, the Internet and cellular phone systems are expected to be integrated to a new form of wireless system. Bandwidth requirements for a rich set of wireless services, e.g.\ video telephony, video streaming, online gaming, will be easily met. The transmission of voice data will just be another IP based service. On the other hand, building such a system is by far not an easy task. The problems in the development of the UMTS system showed the high complexity of wireless systems with support for bandwidth-hungry, IP-based services. But the technological challenges are just one difficulty. Telecommunication systems are planned on a world-wide basis, such that standard bodies, governments, institutions, hardware vendors, and service providers have to find agreements and compromises on a number of different topics. In this work, we provide the reader with a discussion of many of the topics involved in the planning of a Wireless LAN system that is capable of being integrated into the 4th generation mobile networks (4G) that is being discussed nowadays. Therefore, it has to be able to cope with interactive voice and video traffic while still offering high data rates for best effort traffic. Let us assume a scenario where a huge office complex is completely covered with Wireless LAN access points. Different antenna systems are applied in order to reduce the number of access points that are needed on the one hand, while optimizing the coverage on the other. No additional infrastructure is implemented. Our goal is to evaluate whether the Wireless LAN technology is capable of dealing with the various demands of such a scenario. First, each single access point has to be capable of supporting best-effort and Quality of Service (QoS) demanding applications simultaneously. The IT infrastructure in our scenario consists solely of Wireless LAN, such that it has to allow users surfing the Web, while others are involved in voice calls or video conferences. Then, there is the problem of overlapping cells. Users attached to one access point produce interference for others. However, the QoS support has to be maintained, which is not an easy task. Finally, there are nomadic users, which roam from one Wireless LAN cell to another even during a voice call. There are mechanisms in the standard that allow for mobility, but their capabilities for QoS support are yet to be studied. This shows the large number of unresolved issues when it comes to Wireless LAN in the context of 4G networks. In this work we want to tackle some of the problems. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-14896 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1260 Dissertation Eichelberger, Holger Aesthetics and automatic layout of UML class diagrams In the last years, visual methods have been introduced in industrial software production and teaching of software engineering. In particular, the international standardization of a graphical software engineering language, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) was a reason for this tendency. Unfortunately, various problems exist in concrete realizations of tools, e.g. due to a missing compliance to the standard. One problem is the automatic layout, which is required for a consistent automatic software design. The thesis derives reasons and criteria for an automatic layout method, which produces drawings of UML class diagrams according to the UML specification and issues of human computer interaction, e.g. readability. A unique set of aesthetic criteria is combined from four different disciplines involved in this topic. Based on these aethetic rules, a hierarchical layout algorithm is developed, analyzed, measured by specialized measuring techniques and compared to related work. Then, the realization of the algorithm as a Java framework is given as an architectural description. Finally, adaptions to anticipated future changes of the UML, improvements of the framework and example drawings of the implementation are given. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-14831 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1369 Dissertation Böhler, Elmar Algebraic closures in complexity theory We use algebraic closures and structures which are derived from these in complexity theory. We classify problems with Boolean circuits and Boolean constraints according to their complexity. We transfer algebraic structures to structural complexity. We use the generation problem to classify important complexity classes. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-16106 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-728 Dissertation Karch, Oliver Where am I? - Indoor localization based on range measurements Nowadays, robotics plays an important role in increasing fields of application. There exist many environments or situations where mobile robots instead of human beings are used, since the tasks are too hazardous, uncomfortable, repetitive, or costly for humans to perform. The autonomy and the mobility of the robot are often essential for a good solution of these problems. Thus, such a robot should at least be able to answer the question "Where am I?". This thesis investigates the problem of self-localizing a robot in an indoor environment using range measurements. That is, a robot equipped with a range sensor wakes up inside a building and has to determine its position using only its sensor data and a map of its environment. We examine this problem from an idealizing point of view (reducing it into a pure geometric one) and further investigate a method of Guibas, Motwani, and Raghavan from the field of computational geometry to solving it. Here, so-called visibility skeletons, which can be seen as coarsened representations of visibility polygons, play a decisive role. In the major part of this thesis we analyze the structures and the occurring complexities in the framework of this scheme. It turns out that the main source of complication are so-called overlapping embeddings of skeletons into the map polygon, for which we derive some restrictive visibility constraints. Based on these results we are able to improve one of the occurring complexity bounds in the sense that we can formulate it with respect to the number of reflex vertices instead of the total number of map vertices. This also affects the worst-case bound on the preprocessing complexity of the method. The second part of this thesis compares the previous idealizing assumptions with the properties of real-world environments and discusses the occurring problems. In order to circumvent these problems, we use the concept of distance functions, which model the resemblance between the sensor data and the map, and appropriately adapt the above method to the needs of realistic scenarios. In particular, we introduce a distance function, namely the polar coordinate metric, which seems to be well suited to the localization problem. Finally, we present the RoLoPro software where most of the discussed algorithms are implemented (including the polar coordinate metric). 2002 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-8442 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-5241 unpublished Nassourou, Mohamadou Computing Generic Causes of Revelation of the Quranic Verses Using Machine Learning Techniques Because many verses of the holy Quran are similar, there is high probability that, similar verses addressing same issues share same generic causes of revelation. In this study, machine learning techniques have been employed in order to automatically derive causes of revelation of Quranic verses. The derivation of the causes of revelation is viewed as a classification problem. Initially the categories are based on the verses with known causes of revelation, and the testing set consists of the remaining verses. Based on a computed threshold value, a naïve Bayesian classifier is used to categorize some verses. After that, using a decision tree classifier the remaining uncategorized verses are separated into verses that contain indicators (resultative connectors, causative expressions…), and those that do not. As for those verses having indicators, each one is segmented into its constituent clauses by identification of the linking indicators. Then a dominant clause is extracted and considered either as the cause of revelation, or post-processed by adding or subtracting some terms to form a causal clause that constitutes the cause of revelation. Concerning remaining unclassified verses without indicators, a naive Bayesian classifier is again used to assign each one of them to one of the existing classes based on features and topics similarity. As for verses that could not be classified so far, manual classification was made by considering each verse as a category on its own. The result obtained in this study is encouraging, and shows that automatic derivation of Quranic verses' generic causes of revelation is achievable, and reasonably reliable for understanding and implementing the teachings of the Quran. 2011 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-66083 Institut für deutsche Philologie
OPUS4-5742 Dissertation Reitwießner, Christian Multiobjective Optimization and Language Equations Praktische Optimierungsprobleme beinhalten oft mehrere gleichberechtigte, sich jedoch widersprechende Kriterien. Beispielsweise will man bei einer Reise zugleich möglichst schnell ankommen, sie soll aber auch nicht zu teuer sein. Im ersten Teil dieser Arbeit wird die algorithmische Beherrschbarkeit solcher mehrkriterieller Optimierungsprobleme behandelt. Es werden zunächst verschiedene Lösungsbegriffe diskutiert und auf ihre Schwierigkeit hin verglichen. Interessanterweise stellt sich heraus, dass diese Begriffe für ein einkriterielles Problem stets gleich schwer sind, sie sich ab zwei Kriterien allerdings stark unterscheiden könen (außer es gilt P = NP). In diesem Zusammenhang wird auch die Beziehung zwischen Such- und Entscheidungsproblemen im Allgemeinen untersucht. Schließlich werden neue und verbesserte Approximationsalgorithmen für verschieden Varianten des Problems des Handlungsreisenden gefunden. Dabei wird mit Mitteln der Diskrepanztheorie eine Technik entwickelt, die ein grundlegendes Hindernis der Mehrkriteriellen Optimierung aus dem Weg schafft: Gegebene Lösungen so zu kombinieren, dass die neue Lösung in allen Kriterien möglichst ausgewogen ist und gleichzeitig die Struktur der Lösungen nicht zu stark zerstört wird. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit widmet sich verschiedenen Aspekten von Gleichungssystemen für (formale) Sprachen. Einerseits werden konjunktive und Boolesche Grammatiken untersucht. Diese sind Erweiterungen der kontextfreien Grammatiken um explizite Durchschnitts- und Komplementoperationen. Es wird unter anderem gezeigt, dass man bei konjunktiven Grammatiken die Vereinigungsoperation stark einschränken kann, ohne dabei die erzeugte Sprache zu ändern. Außerdem werden bestimmte Schaltkreise untersucht, deren Gatter keine Wahrheitswerte sondern Mengen von Zahlen berechnen. Für diese Schaltkreise wird das Äquivalenzproblem betrachtet, also die Frage ob zwei gegebene Schaltkreise die gleiche Menge berechnen oder nicht. Es stellt sich heraus, dass, abhängig von den erlaubten Gattertypen, die Komplexität des Äquivalenzproblems stark variiert und für verschiedene Komplexitätsklassen vollständig ist, also als (parametrisierter) Vertreter für diese Klassen stehen kann. 2011 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-70146 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-10488 Bericht Kounev, Samuel; Brosig, Fabian; Huber, Nikolaus The Descartes Modeling Language This technical report introduces the Descartes Modeling Language (DML), a new architecture-level modeling language for modeling Quality-of-Service (QoS) and resource management related aspects of modern dynamic IT systems, infrastructures and services. DML is designed to serve as a basis for self-aware resource management during operation ensuring that system QoS requirements are continuously satisfied while infrastructure resources are utilized as efficiently as possible. 2014 91 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-104887 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-9758 Wissenschaftlicher Artikel Wolff, Alexander; Rutter, Iganz Augmenting the Connectivity of Planar and Geometric Graphs In this paper we study connectivity augmentation problems. Given a connected graph G with some desirable property, we want to make G 2-vertex connected (or 2-edge connected) by adding edges such that the resulting graph keeps the property. The aim is to add as few edges as possible. The property that we consider is planarity, both in an abstract graph-theoretic and in a geometric setting, where vertices correspond to points in the plane and edges to straight-line segments. We show that it is NP-hard to � nd a minimum-cardinality augmentation that makes a planar graph 2-edge connected. For making a planar graph 2-vertex connected this was known. We further show that both problems are hard in the geometric setting, even when restricted to trees. The problems remain hard for higher degrees of connectivity. On the other hand we give polynomial-time algorithms for the special case of convex geometric graphs. We also study the following related problem. Given a planar (plane geometric) graph G, two vertices s and t of G, and an integer c, how many edges have to be added to G such that G is still planar (plane geometric) and contains c edge- (or vertex-) disjoint s{t paths? For the planar case we give a linear-time algorithm for c = 2. For the plane geometric case we give optimal worst-case bounds for c = 2; for c = 3 we characterize the cases that have a solution. 2012 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-97587 10.7155/jgaa.00275 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-6429 Dissertation Baunach, Marcel Advances in Distributed Real-Time Sensor/Actuator Systems Operation - Operating Systems, Communication, and Application Design Concepts - This work takes a close look at several quite different research areas related to the design of networked embedded sensor/actuator systems. The variety of the topics illustrates the potential complexity of current sensor network applications; especially when enriched with actuators for proactivity and environmental interaction. Besides their conception, development, installation and long-term operation, we'll mainly focus on more "low-level" aspects: Compositional hardware and software design, task cooperation and collaboration, memory management, and real-time operation will be addressed from a local node perspective. In contrast, inter-node synchronization, communication, as well as sensor data acquisition, aggregation, and fusion will be discussed from a rather global network view. The diversity in the concepts was intentionally accepted to finally facilitate the reliable implementation of truly complex systems. In particular, these should go beyond the usual "sense and transmit of sensor data", but show how powerful today's networked sensor/actuator systems can be despite of their low computational performance and constrained hardware: If their resources are only coordinated efficiently! 2012 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-76489 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-4897 unpublished Nassourou, Mohamadou A Rule-based Statistical Classifier for Determining a Base Text and Ranking Witnesses In Textual Documents Collation Process Given a collection of diverging documents about some lost original text, any person interested in the text would try reconstructing it from the diverging documents. Whether it is eclecticism, stemmatics, or copy-text, one is expected to explicitly or indirectly select one of the documents as a starting point or as a base text, which could be emended through comparison with remaining documents, so that a text that could be designated as the original document is generated. Unfortunately the process of giving priority to one of the documents also known as witnesses is a subjective approach. In fact even Cladistics, which could be considered as a computer-based approach of implementing stemmatics, does not present or recommend users to select a certain witness as a starting point for the process of reconstructing the original document. In this study, a computational method using a rule-based Bayesian classifier is used, to assist text scholars in their attempts of reconstructing a non-existing document from some available witnesses. The method developed in this study consists of selecting a base text successively and collating it with remaining documents. Each completed collation cycle stores the selected base text and its closest witness, along with a weighted score of their similarities and differences. At the end of the collation process, a witness selected more often by majority of base texts is considered as the probable base text of the collection. Witnesses' scores are weighted using a weighting system, based on effects of types of textual modifications on the process of reconstructing original documents. Users have the possibility to select between baseless and base text collation. If a base text is selected, the task is reduced to ranking the witnesses with respect to the base text, otherwise a base text as well as ranking of the witnesses with respect to the base text are computed and displayed on a histogram. 2011 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-57465 Institut für deutsche Philologie
OPUS4-1540 Dissertation Betz, Christian Scalable authoring of diagnostic case based training systems Diagnostic Case Based Training Systems (D-CBT) provide learners with a means to learn and exercise knowledge in a realistic context. In medical education, D-CBT Systems present virtual patients to the learners who are asked to examine, diagnose and state therapies for these patients. Due a number of conflicting and changing requirements, e.g. time for learning, authoring effort, several systems were developed so far. These systems range from simple, easy-to-use presentation systems to highly complex knowledge based systems supporting explorative learning. This thesis presents an approach and tools to create D-CBT systems from existing sources (documents, e.g. dismissal records) using existing tools (word processors): Authors annotate and extend the documents to model the knowledge. A scalable knowledge representation is able to capture the content on multiple levels, from simple to highly structured knowledge. Thus, authoring of D-CBT systems requires less prerequisites and pre-knowledge and is faster than approaches using specialized authoring environments. Also, authors can iteratively add and structure more knowledge to adapt training cases to their learners needs. The theses also discusses the application of the same approach to other domains, especially to knowledge acquisition for the Semantic Web. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-17885 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1786 Dissertation Atzmüller, Martin Knowledge-Intensive Subgroup Mining - Techniques for Automatic and Interactive Discovery Data mining has proved its significance in various domains and applications. As an important subfield of the general data mining task, subgroup mining can be used, e.g., for marketing purposes in business domains, or for quality profiling and analysis in medical domains. The goal is to efficiently discover novel, potentially useful and ultimately interesting knowledge. However, in real-world situations these requirements often cannot be fulfilled, e.g., if the applied methods do not scale for large data sets, if too many results are presented to the user, or if many of the discovered patterns are already known to the user. This thesis proposes a combination of several techniques in order to cope with the sketched problems: We discuss automatic methods, including heuristic and exhaustive approaches, and especially present the novel SD-Map algorithm for exhaustive subgroup discovery that is fast and effective. For an interactive approach we describe techniques for subgroup introspection and analysis, and we present advanced visualization methods, e.g., the zoomtable that directly shows the most important parameters of a subgroup and that can be used for optimization and exploration. We also describe various visualizations for subgroup comparison and evaluation in order to support the user during these essential steps. Furthermore, we propose to include possibly available background knowledge that is easy to formalize into the mining process. We can utilize the knowledge in many ways: To focus the search process, to restrict the search space, and ultimately to increase the efficiency of the discovery method. We especially present background knowledge to be applied for filtering the elements of the problem domain, for constructing abstractions, for aggregating values of attributes, and for the post-processing of the discovered set of patterns. Finally, the techniques are combined into a knowledge-intensive process supporting both automatic and interactive methods for subgroup mining. The practical significance of the proposed approach strongly depends on the available tools. We introduce the VIKAMINE system as a highly-integrated environment for knowledge-intensive active subgroup mining. Also, we present an evaluation consisting of two parts: With respect to objective evaluation criteria, i.e., comparing the efficiency and the effectiveness of the subgroup discovery methods, we provide an experimental evaluation using generated data. For that task we present a novel data generator that allows a simple and intuitive specification of the data characteristics. The results of the experimental evaluation indicate that the novel SD-Map method outperforms the other described algorithms using data sets similar to the intended application concerning the efficiency, and also with respect to precision and recall for the heuristic methods. Subjective evaluation criteria include the user acceptance, the benefit of the approach, and the interestingness of the results. We present five case studies utilizing the presented techniques: The approach has been successfully implemented in medical and technical applications using real-world data sets. The method was very well accepted by the users that were able to discover novel, useful, and interesting knowledge. 2006 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-21004 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-4662 unpublished Nassourou, Mohamadou A Knowledge-based Hybrid Statistical Classifier for Reconstructing the Chronology of the Quran Computationally categorizing Quran's chapters has been mainly confined to the determination of chapters' revelation places. However this broad classification is not sufficient to effectively and thoroughly understand and interpret the Quran. The chronology of revelation would not only improve comprehending the philosophy of Islam, but also the easiness of implementing and memorizing its laws and recommendations. This paper attempts estimating possible chapters' dates of revelation through their lexical frequency profiles. A hybrid statistical classifier consisting of stemming and clustering algorithms for comparing lexical frequency profiles of chapters, and deriving dates of revelation has been developed. The classifier is trained using some chapters with known dates of revelation. Then it classifies chapters with uncertain dates of revelation by computing their proximity to the training ones. The results reported here indicate that the proposed methodology yields usable results in estimating dates of revelation of the Quran's chapters based on their lexical contents. 2011 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-54712 Institut für deutsche Philologie
OPUS4-4254 unpublished Nassourou, Mohamadou Understanding the Vex Rendering Engine The Visual Editor for XML (Vex)[1] used by TextGrid [2]and other applications has got rendering and layout engines. The layout engine is well documented but the rendering engine is not. This lack of documenting the rendering engine has made refactoring and extending the editor hard and tedious. For instance many CSS2.1 and upcoming CSS3 properties have not been implemented. Software developers in different projects such as TextGrid using Vex would like to update its CSS rendering engine in order to provide advanced user interfaces as well as support different document types. In order to minimize the effort of extending Vex functionality, I found it beneficial to write a basic documentation about Vex software architecture in general and its CSS rendering engine in particular. The documentation is mainly based on the idea of architectural layered diagrams. In fact layered diagrams can help developers understand software's source code faster and easier in order to alter it, and fix errors. This paper is written for the purpose of providing direct support for exploration in the comprehension process of Vex source code. It discusses Vex software architecture. The organization of packages that make up the software, the architecture of its CSS rendering engine, an algorithm explaining the working principle of its rendering engine are described. 2010 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-51333 Institut für deutsche Philologie
OPUS4-4255 unpublished Nassourou, Mohamadou Reference Architecture, Design of Cascading Style Sheets Processing Model The technique of using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to format and present structured data is called CSS processing model. For instance a CSS processing model for XML documents describes steps involved in formatting and presenting XML documents on screens or papers. Many software applications such as browsers and XML editors have their own CSS processing models which are part of their rendering engines. For instance each browser based on its CSS processing model renders CSS layout differently, as a result an inconsistency in the support of CSS features arises. Some browsers support more CSS features than others, and the rendering itself varies. Moreover the W3C standards are not even adhered by some browsers such as Internet Explorer. Test suites and other hacks and filters cannot definitely solve these problems, because these solutions are temporary and fragile. To palliate this inconsistency and browser compatibility issues with respect to CSS, a reference CSS processing model is needed. By extension it could even allow interoperability across CSS rendering engines. A reference architecture would provide common software architecture and interfaces, and facilitate refactoring, reuse, and automated unit testing. In [2] a reference architecture for browsers has been proposed. However this reference architecture is a macro reference model which does not consider separately individual components of rendering and layout engines. In this paper an attempt to develop a reference architecture for CSS processing models is discussed. In addition the Vex editor [3] rendering and layout engines, as well as an extended version of the editor used in TextGrid project [5] are also presented in order to validate the proposed reference architecture. 2010 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-51328 Institut für deutsche Philologie