Dokument-ID Dokumenttyp Verfasser/Autoren Herausgeber Haupttitel Abstract Auflage Verlagsort Verlag Erscheinungsjahr Seitenzahl Schriftenreihe Titel Schriftenreihe Bandzahl ISBN Quelle der Hochschulschrift Konferenzname Quelle:Titel Quelle:Jahrgang Quelle:Heftnummer Quelle:Erste Seite Quelle:Letzte Seite URN DOI Abteilungen
OPUS4-234 Dissertation Kosub, Sven Complexity and Partitions Computational complexity theory usually investigates the complexity of sets, i.e., the complexity of partitions into two parts. But often it is more appropriate to represent natural problems by partitions into more than two parts. A particularly interesting class of such problems consists of classification problems for relations. For instance, a binary relation R typically defines a partitioning of the set of all pairs (x,y) into four parts, classifiable according to the cases where R(x,y) and R(y,x) hold, only R(x,y) or only R(y,x) holds or even neither R(x,y) nor R(y,x) is true. By means of concrete classification problems such as Graph Embedding or Entailment (for propositional logic), this thesis systematically develops tools, in shape of the boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions and its refinements, for the qualitative analysis of the complexity of partitions generated by NP-relations. The Boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions is introduced as a generalization of the well-known and well-studied Boolean hierarchy (of sets) over NP. Whereas the latter hierarchy has a very simple structure, the situation is much more complicated for the case of partitions into at least three parts. To get an idea of this hierarchy, alternative descriptions of the partition classes are given in terms of finite, labeled lattices. Based on these characterizations the Embedding Conjecture is established providing the complete information on the structure of the hierarchy. This conjecture is supported by several results. A natural extension of the Boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions emerges from the lattice-characterization of its classes by considering partition classes generated by finite, labeled posets. It turns out that all significant ideas translate from the case of lattices. The induced refined Boolean hierarchy of NP-partitions enables us more accuratly capturing the complexity of certain relations (such as Graph Embedding) and a description of projectively closed partition classes. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2808 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-236 Dissertation Schmitz, Heinz The Forbidden Pattern Approach to Concatenation Hierarchies The thesis looks at the question asking for the computability of the dot-depth of star-free regular languages. Here one has to determine for a given star-free regular language the minimal number of alternations between concatenation on one hand, and intersection, union, complement on the other hand. This question was first raised in 1971 (Brzozowski/Cohen) and besides the extended star-heights problem usually refered to as one of the most difficult open questions on regular languages. The dot-depth problem can be captured formally by hierarchies of classes of star-free regular languages B(0), B(1/2), B(1), B(3/2),... and L(0), L(1/2), L(1), L(3/2),.... which are defined via alternating the closure under concatenation and Boolean operations, beginning with single alphabet letters. Now the question of dot-depth is the question whether these hierarchy classes have decidable membership problems. The thesis makes progress on this question using the so-called forbidden pattern approach: Classes of regular languages are characterized in terms of patterns in finite automata (subgraphs in the transition graph) that are not allowed. Such a characterization immediately implies the decidability of the respective class, since the absence of a certain pattern in a given automaton can be effectively verified. Before this work, the decidability of B(0), B(1/2), B(1) and L(0), L(1/2), L(1), L(3/2) were known. Here a detailed study of these classes with help of forbidden patterns is given which leads to new insights into their inner structure. Furthermore, the decidability of B(3/2) is proven. Based on these results a theory of pattern iteration is developed which leads to the introduction of two new hierarchies of star-free regular languages. These hierarchies are decidable on one hand, on the other hand they are in close connection to the classes B(n) and L(n). It remains an open question here whether they may in fact coincide. Some evidence is given in favour of this conjecture which opens a new way to attack the dot-depth problem. Moreover, it is shown that the class L(5/2) is decidable in the restricted case of a two-letter alphabet. 2000 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2832 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-237 Dissertation Wirth, Hans-Christoph Multicriteria Approximation of Network Design and Network Upgrade Problems Network planning has come to great importance during the past decades. Today's telecommunication, traffic systems, and logistics would not have been evolved to the current state without careful analysis of the underlying network problems and precise implementation of the results obtained from those examinations. Graphs with node and arc attributes are a very useful tool to model realistic applications, while on the other hand they are well understood in theory. We investigate network design problems which are motivated particularly from applications in communication networks and logistics. Those problems include the search for homogeneous subgraphs in edge labeled graphs where either the total number of labels or the reload cost are subject to optimize. Further, we investigate some variants of the dial a ride problem. On the other hand, we use node and edge upgrade models to deal with the fact that in many cases one prefers to change existing networks rather than implementing a newly computed solution from scratch. We investigate the construction of bottleneck constrained forests under a node upgrade model, as well as several flow cost problems under a edge based upgrade model. All problems are examined within a framework of multi-criteria optimization. Many of the problems can be shown to be NP-hard, with the consequence that, under the widely accepted assumption that P is not equal to NP, there cannot exist efficient algorithms for solving the problems. This motivates the development of approximation algorithms which compute near-optimal solutions with provable performance guarantee in polynomial time. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2845 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-238 Dissertation Glaßer, Christian Forbidden-Patterns and Word Extensions for Concatenation Hierarchies Starfree regular languages can be build up from alphabet letters by using only Boolean operations and concatenation. The complexity of these languages can be measured with the so-called dot-depth. This measure leads to concatenation hierarchies like the dot-depth hierarchy (DDH) and the closely related Straubing-Thérien hierarchy (STH). The question whether the single levels of these hierarchies are decidable is still open and is known as the dot-depth problem. In this thesis we prove/reprove the decidability of some lower levels of both hierarchies. More precisely, we characterize these levels in terms of patterns in finite automata (subgraphs in the transition graph) that are not allowed. Therefore, such characterizations are called forbidden-pattern characterizations. The main results of the thesis are as follows: forbidden-pattern characterization for level 3/2 of the DDH (this implies the decidability of this level) decidability of the Boolean hierarchy over level 1/2 of the DDH definition of decidable hierarchies having close relations to the DDH and STH Moreover, we prove/reprove the decidability of the levels 1/2 and 3/2 of both hierarchies in terms of forbidden-pattern characterizations. We show the decidability of the Boolean hierarchies over level 1/2 of the DDH and over level 1/2 of the STH. A technique which uses word extensions plays the central role in the proofs of these results. With this technique it is possible to treat the levels 1/2 and 3/2 of both hierarchies in a uniform way. Furthermore, it can be used to prove the decidability of the mentioned Boolean hierarchies. Among other things we provide a combinatorial tool that allows to partition words of arbitrary length into factors of bounded length such that every second factor u leads to a loop with label u in a given finite automaton. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-1179153 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-239 Dissertation Klügl, Franziska Aktivitätsbasierte Verhaltensmodellierung und ihre Unterstützung bei Multiagentensimulationen Durch Zusammenführung traditioneller Methoden zur individuenbasierten Simulation und dem Konzept der Multiagentensysteme steht mit der Multiagentensimulation eine Methodik zur Verfügung, die es ermöglicht, sowohl technisch als auch konzeptionell eine neue Ebene an Detaillierung bei Modellbildung und Simulation zu erreichen. Ein Modell beruht dabei auf dem Konzept einer Gesellschaft: Es besteht aus einer Menge interagierender, aber in ihren Entscheidungen autonomen Einheiten, den Agenten. Diese ändern durch ihre Aktionen ihre Umwelt und reagieren ebenso auf die für sie wahrnehmbaren Änderungen in der Umwelt. Durch die Simulation jedes Agenten zusammen mit der Umwelt, in der er "lebt", wird die Dynamik im Gesamtsystem beobachtbar. In der vorliegenden Dissertation wurde ein Repräsentationsschema für Multiagentensimulationen entwickelt werden, das es Fachexperten, wie zum Beispiel Biologen, ermöglicht, selbständig ohne traditionelles Programmieren Multiagentenmodelle zu implementieren und mit diesen Experimente durchzuführen. Dieses deklarative Schema beruht auf zwei Basiskonzepten: Der Körper eines Agenten besteht aus Zustandsvariablen. Das Verhalten des Agenten kann mit Regeln beschrieben werden. Ausgehend davon werden verschiedene Strukturierungsansätze behandelt. Das wichtigste Konzept ist das der "Aktivität", einer Art "Verhaltenszustand": Während der Agent in einer Aktivität A verweilt, führt er die zugehörigen Aktionen aus und dies solange, bis eine Regel feuert, die diese Aktivität beendet und eine neue Aktivität auswählt. Durch Indizierung dieser Regeln bei den zugehörigen Aktivitäten und Einführung von abstrakten Aktivitäten entsteht ein Schema für eine vielfältig strukturierbare Verhaltensbeschreibung. Zu diesem Schema wurde ein Interpreter entwickelt, der ein derartig repräsentiertes Modell ausführt und so Simulationsexperimente mit dem Multiagentenmodell erlaubt. Auf dieser Basis wurde die Modellierungs- und Experimentierumgebung SeSAm ("Shell für Simulierte Agentensysteme") entwickelt. Sie verwendet vorhandene Konzepte aus dem visuellen Programmieren. Mit dieser Umgebung wurden Anwendungsmodelle aus verschiedenen Domänen realisiert: Neben abstrakten Spielbeispielen waren dies vor allem Fragestellungen zu sozialen Insekten, z.B. zum Verhalten von Ameisen, Bienen oder der Interaktion zwischen Bienenvölkern und Milbenpopulationen. 2000 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-2874 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-2 Dissertation Reith, Steffen Generalized Satisfiability Problems In the last 40 years, complexity theory has grown to a rich and powerful field in theoretical computer science. The main task of complexity theory is the classification of problems with respect to their consumption of resources (e.g., running time or required memory). To study the computational complexity (i.e., consumption of resources) of problems, similar problems are grouped into so called complexity classes. During the systematic study of numerous problems of practical relevance, no efficient algorithm for a great number of studied problems was found. Moreover, it was unclear whether such algorithms exist. A major breakthrough in this situation was the introduction of the complexity classes P and NP and the identification of hardest problems in NP. These hardest problems of NP are nowadays known as NP-complete problems. One prominent example of an NP-complete problem is the satisfiability problem of propositional formulas (SAT). Here we get a propositional formula as an input and it must be decided whether an assignment for the propositional variables exists, such that this assignment satisfies the given formula. The intensive study of NP led to numerous related classes, e.g., the classes of the polynomial-time hierarchy PH, P, #P, PP, NL, L and #L. During the study of these classes, problems related to propositional formulas were often identified to be complete problems for these classes. Hence some questions arise: Why is SAT so hard to solve? Are there modifications of SAT which are complete for other well-known complexity classes? In the context of these questions a result by E. Post is extremely useful. He identified and characterized all classes of Boolean functions being closed under superposition. It is possible to study problems which are connected to generalized propositional logic by using this result, which was done in this thesis. Hence, many different problems connected to propositional logic were studied and classified with respect to their computational complexity, clearing the borderline between easy and hard problems. 2001 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-74 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1280 Dissertation Heck, Klaus Wireless LAN performance studies in the context of 4G networks Wireless communication is nothing new. The first data transmissions based on electromagnetic waves have been successfully performed at the end of the 19th century. However, it took almost another century until the technology was ripe for mass market. The first mobile communication systems based on the transmission of digital data were introduced in the late 1980s. Within just a couple of years they have caused a revolution in the way people communicate. The number of cellular phones started to outnumber the fixed telephone lines in many countries and is still rising. New technologies in 3G systems, such as UMTS, allow higher data rates and support various kinds of multimedia services. Nevertheless, the end of the road in wireless communication is far from being reached. In the near future, the Internet and cellular phone systems are expected to be integrated to a new form of wireless system. Bandwidth requirements for a rich set of wireless services, e.g.\ video telephony, video streaming, online gaming, will be easily met. The transmission of voice data will just be another IP based service. On the other hand, building such a system is by far not an easy task. The problems in the development of the UMTS system showed the high complexity of wireless systems with support for bandwidth-hungry, IP-based services. But the technological challenges are just one difficulty. Telecommunication systems are planned on a world-wide basis, such that standard bodies, governments, institutions, hardware vendors, and service providers have to find agreements and compromises on a number of different topics. In this work, we provide the reader with a discussion of many of the topics involved in the planning of a Wireless LAN system that is capable of being integrated into the 4th generation mobile networks (4G) that is being discussed nowadays. Therefore, it has to be able to cope with interactive voice and video traffic while still offering high data rates for best effort traffic. Let us assume a scenario where a huge office complex is completely covered with Wireless LAN access points. Different antenna systems are applied in order to reduce the number of access points that are needed on the one hand, while optimizing the coverage on the other. No additional infrastructure is implemented. Our goal is to evaluate whether the Wireless LAN technology is capable of dealing with the various demands of such a scenario. First, each single access point has to be capable of supporting best-effort and Quality of Service (QoS) demanding applications simultaneously. The IT infrastructure in our scenario consists solely of Wireless LAN, such that it has to allow users surfing the Web, while others are involved in voice calls or video conferences. Then, there is the problem of overlapping cells. Users attached to one access point produce interference for others. However, the QoS support has to be maintained, which is not an easy task. Finally, there are nomadic users, which roam from one Wireless LAN cell to another even during a voice call. There are mechanisms in the standard that allow for mobility, but their capabilities for QoS support are yet to be studied. This shows the large number of unresolved issues when it comes to Wireless LAN in the context of 4G networks. In this work we want to tackle some of the problems. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-14896 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1260 Dissertation Eichelberger, Holger Aesthetics and automatic layout of UML class diagrams In the last years, visual methods have been introduced in industrial software production and teaching of software engineering. In particular, the international standardization of a graphical software engineering language, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) was a reason for this tendency. Unfortunately, various problems exist in concrete realizations of tools, e.g. due to a missing compliance to the standard. One problem is the automatic layout, which is required for a consistent automatic software design. The thesis derives reasons and criteria for an automatic layout method, which produces drawings of UML class diagrams according to the UML specification and issues of human computer interaction, e.g. readability. A unique set of aesthetic criteria is combined from four different disciplines involved in this topic. Based on these aethetic rules, a hierarchical layout algorithm is developed, analyzed, measured by specialized measuring techniques and compared to related work. Then, the realization of the algorithm as a Java framework is given as an architectural description. Finally, adaptions to anticipated future changes of the UML, improvements of the framework and example drawings of the implementation are given. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-14831 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1313 Dissertation Kluge, Boris Motion coordination for a mobile robot in dynamic environments Generating coordinated motion for a mobile robot operating in natural, continuously changing environments among moving obstacles such as humans is a complex task which requires the solution of various sub problems. In this thesis, we will cover the topics of perception and navigation in dynamic environments, as well as reasoning about the motion of the obstacles and of the robot itself. Perception is mainly considered for a laser range finder, and an according method for obstacle detection and tracking is proposed. Network optimization algorithms are used for data association in the tracking step, resulting in considerable robustness with respect to clutter by small objects. Navigation in general is accomplished using an adaptation of the velocity obstacle approach to the given vehicle kinematics, and cooperative motion coordination between the robot and a human guide is achieved using an appropriate selection rule for collision-free velocities. Next, the robot is enabled to compare its path to the path of a human guide using one of a collection of presented distance measures, which permits the detection of exceptional conditions. Furthermore, a taxonomy for the assessment of situations concerning the robot is presented, and following a summary of existing approaches to more intelligent and comprehensive perception, we propose a method for obstruction detection. Finally, a new approach to reflective navigation behaviors is described where the robot reasons about intelligent moving obstacles in its environment, which allows to adjust the character of the robot motion from regardful and defensive to more self-confident and aggressive behaviors. 2004 Bewegungskoordination für einen mobilen Roboter in dynamischen Umgebungen urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-15508 Institut für Informatik
OPUS4-1369 Dissertation Böhler, Elmar Algebraic closures in complexity theory We use algebraic closures and structures which are derived from these in complexity theory. We classify problems with Boolean circuits and Boolean constraints according to their complexity. We transfer algebraic structures to structural complexity. We use the generation problem to classify important complexity classes. 2005 urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-16106 Institut für Informatik