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The DNA weights per nucleus (genome size) of more than 2350 species of the Flora of The Netherlands, of which 1370 are new to science, including the pattern of their DNA peaks

Please always quote using this URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-189724
  • Besides external characteristics and reading a piece of DNA (barcode), the DNA weight per nucleus (genome size) via flow cytometry is a key value to detect species and hybrids and determine ploidy. In addition, the DNA weight appears to be related to various properties, such as the size of the cell and the nucleus, the duration of mitosis and meiosis and the generation time. Sometimes it is even possible to distinguish between groups or sections, which can lead to new classification of the genera. The variation in DNA weight is also useful toBesides external characteristics and reading a piece of DNA (barcode), the DNA weight per nucleus (genome size) via flow cytometry is a key value to detect species and hybrids and determine ploidy. In addition, the DNA weight appears to be related to various properties, such as the size of the cell and the nucleus, the duration of mitosis and meiosis and the generation time. Sometimes it is even possible to distinguish between groups or sections, which can lead to new classification of the genera. The variation in DNA weight is also useful to analyze biodiversity, genome evolution and relationships between related taxa. Moreover, it is important to know how large a genome is before one determines the base sequence of the DNA of a plant. Flow cytometry is also important for understanding fundamental processes in plants such as growth and development and recognizing chimeras. In the literature, DNA weight measurements are usually limited to one genus and often only locally (Siljak et al. 2010; Bai et al. 2012). In this study, however, it was decided to investigate all vascular plants from one country. This can also contribute to the protection of rare plants. This study is the first flora in the world whose weight of DNA per nucleus and peak patterns has been determined. More than 6400 plants, representing more than 2350 (sub)species (more than 90%) have been collected, thanks to the help of almost 100 volunteers of Floristisch Onderzoek Nederland (Floron). Multiple specimens of many species have therefore been measured, preferably from different populations, in some cases more than fifty. For 1370 species, these values were not previously published. Moreover, a good number of the remaining 45% are new for The Netherlands. In principle, each species has a fixed weight of DNA per nucleus. It has also been found that, especially between the genera, there are strong differences in the number of peaks that determine the DNA weight, from one to five peaks. This indicates that in a plant or organ there are sometimes nuclei with multiples of its standard DNA weight (multiple ploidy levels). It is impossible to show graphs of more than 2350 species. Therefore, we have chosen to show the peak pattern in a new way in a short formula. Within most genera there are clear differences in the DNA weights per nucleus between the species, in some other genera the DNA weight is hardly variable. Based on about twenty genera that were previously measured completely in most cases (‘t Hart et al. 2003: Veldkamp and Zonneveld 2011; Soes et al. 2012; Dirkse et al. 2014, 2015; Verloove et al. 2017; Zonneveld [et al.] 2000−2018), it can be noted that even if all species of a genus have the same number of chromosomes, there can still be a difference of up to three times in the weight of the DNA. Therefore, a twice larger DNA weight does not have to indicate four sets of chromosomes. Finally, this research has also found clues to examine further the current taxonomy of a number of species or genera.show moreshow less

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Author: Ben J. M. Zonneveld
URN:urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-189724
Document Type:Journal article
Faculties:Medizinische Fakultät / Institut für Anatomie und Zellbiologie
Language:English
Parent Title (German):Forum Geobotanicum
ISSN:1867-9315
Year of Completion:2019
Volume:8
Pagenumber:24-78
Source:Forum geobotanicum (2019) 8: 24−78 DOI 10.3264/FG.2019.1022
URL:http://www.forum-geobotanicum.net/articles/vol_8-2018/zonneveld_flora-of-the-netherlands/zonneveld_flora-of-the-netherlands.pdf
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3264/FG.2019.1022
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik
GND Keyword:Pflanzen
Tag:DNA weight; Netherlands; flora; genome
Release Date:2019/10/31
Collections:Zeitschriften (Journals) / Forum Geobotanicum / Vol. 8 (2018/2019) / Artikel (articles)
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht