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Specification of BMP signaling

Please always quote using this URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-193869
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) together with the Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs) form the largest subgroup of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)β family and represent secreted growth factors, which play an essential role in many aspects of cell communication in higher organisms. As morphogens they exert crucial functions during embryonal development, but are also involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the adult organism. Their involvement in maintenance and repair processes of various tissues and organs made theseBone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) together with the Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs) form the largest subgroup of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)β family and represent secreted growth factors, which play an essential role in many aspects of cell communication in higher organisms. As morphogens they exert crucial functions during embryonal development, but are also involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the adult organism. Their involvement in maintenance and repair processes of various tissues and organs made these growth factors highly interesting targets for novel pharmaceutical applications in regenerative medicine. A hallmark of the TGFβ protein family is that all of the more than 30 growth factors identified to date signal by binding and hetero-oligomerization of a very limited set of transmembrane serine-threonine kinase receptors, which can be classified into two subgroups termed type I and type II. Only seven type I and five type II receptors exist for all 30plus TGFβ members suggesting a pronounced ligand-receptor promiscuity. Indeed, many TGFβ ligands can bind the same type I or type II receptor and a particular receptor of either subtype can usually interact with and bind various TGFβ ligands. The possible consequence of this ligand-receptor promiscuity is further aggravated by the finding that canonical TGFβ signaling of all family members seemingly results in the activation of just two distinct signaling pathways, that is either SMAD2/3 or SMAD1/5/8 activation. While this would implicate that different ligands can assemble seemingly identical receptor complexes that activate just either one of two distinct pathways, in vitro and in vivo analyses show that the different TGFβ members exert quite distinct biological functions with high specificity. This discrepancy indicates that our current view of TGFβ signaling initiation just by hetero-oligomerization of two receptor subtypes and transduction via two main pathways in an on-off switch manner is too simplified. Hence, the signals generated by the various TGFβ members are either quantitatively interpreted using the subtle differences in their receptor-binding properties leading to ligand-specific modulation of the downstream signaling cascade or additional components participating in the signaling activation complex allow diversification of the encoded signal in a ligand-dependent manner at all cellular levels. In this review we focus on signal specification of TGFβ members, particularly of BMPs and GDFs addressing the role of binding affinities, specificities, and kinetics of individual ligand-receptor interactions for the assembly of specific receptor complexes with potentially distinct signaling properties.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author: Joachim Nickel, Thomas D. Mueller
URN:urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-193869
Document Type:Journal article
Faculties:Fakultät für Biologie / Julius-von-Sachs-Institut für Biowissenschaften
Medizinische Fakultät / Lehrstuhl für Tissue Engineering und Regenerative Medizin
Language:English
Parent Title (English):Cells
ISSN:2073-4409
Year of Completion:2019
Volume:8
Issue:12
Pagenumber:1579
Source:Cells 2019, 8(12), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121579
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121579
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Tag:TGFβ/BMP signaling; ligand-receptor promiscuity; signal specification
Release Date:2020/03/08
Date of first Publication:2019/12/05
Open-Access-Publikationsfonds / Förderzeitraum 2019
Licence (German):License LogoCC BY: Creative-Commons-Lizenz: Namensnennung 4.0 International