• search hit 10 of 160
Back to Result List

Mass eruption rates in pulsating eruptions estimated from video analysis of the gas thrust-buoyancy transition-a case study of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

Please always quote using this URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-138635
  • The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Discrete ash bursts merged at higher altitude and formed a sustained quasi-continuous eruption column. High-resolution near-field videos were recorded on 8-10 May, during the second explosive phase of the eruption, and supplemented by contemporary aerial observations. In the observed period, pulses occurred at intervals of 0.8 to 23.4 s (average, 4.2 s). On the basis of video analysis, the pulse volume and the velocity of the reversely buoyant jets thatThe 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Discrete ash bursts merged at higher altitude and formed a sustained quasi-continuous eruption column. High-resolution near-field videos were recorded on 8-10 May, during the second explosive phase of the eruption, and supplemented by contemporary aerial observations. In the observed period, pulses occurred at intervals of 0.8 to 23.4 s (average, 4.2 s). On the basis of video analysis, the pulse volume and the velocity of the reversely buoyant jets that initiated each pulse were determined. The expansion history of jets was tracked until the pulses reached the height of transition from a negatively buoyant jet to a convective buoyant plume about 100 m above the vent. Based on the assumption that the density of the gas-solid mixture making up the pulse approximates that of the surrounding air at the level of transition from the jet to the plume, a mass flux ranging between 2.2 and 3.5 . 10\(^4\) kg/s was calculated. This mass eruption rate is in good agreement with results obtained with simple models relating plume height with mass discharge at the vent. Our findings indicate that near-field measurements of eruption source parameters in a pulsating eruption may prove to be an effective monitoring tool. A comparison of the observed pulses with those generated in calibrated large-scale experiments reveals very similar characteristics and suggests that the analysis of near-field sensors could in the future help to constrain the triggering mechanism of explosive eruptions.show moreshow less

Download full text files

Export metadata

Additional Services

Share in Twitter Search Google Scholar Statistics
Metadaten
Author: Tobias Dürig, Magnús Tumi Gudmundsson, Sven Karmann, Bernd Zimanowski, Pierfrancesco Dellino, Martin Rietze, Ralf Büttner
URN:urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-138635
Document Type:Journal article
Faculties:Philosophische Fakultät (Histor., philolog., Kultur- und geograph. Wissensch.) / Institut für Geographie und Geologie
Language:English
Parent Title (English):Earth, Planets and Space
Year of Completion:2015
Volume:67
Issue:180
Source:Earth, Planets and Space (2015) 67:180 doi: 10.1186/s40623-015-0351-7
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0351-7
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 55 Geowissenschaften, Geologie / 550 Geowissenschaften
Tag:Eyjafjallajökull 2010; dynamics; energy; entrainment; eruption rate; explosive volcanism; image; infrasound; jets; mass; models; near-field monitoring; plumes; pulsating explosive eruptions; source parameters; volcano
Release Date:2016/10/25
EU-Project number / Contract (GA) number:308377
OpenAIRE:OpenAIRE
Licence (German):License LogoCC BY: Creative-Commons-Lizenz: Namensnennung