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Targeting GABA\(_A\)R-associated proteins: new modulators, labels and concepts

Please always quote using this URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-201876
  • γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA\(_A\)Rs) are the major mediators of synaptic inhibition in the brain. Aberrant GABA\(_A\)R activity or regulation is observed in various neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and mental illnesses, including epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia. Benzodiazepines, anesthetics and other pharmaceutics targeting these receptors find broad clinical use, but their inherent lack of receptor subtype specificity causes unavoidable side effects, raising a need for new or adjuvant medications.γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA\(_A\)Rs) are the major mediators of synaptic inhibition in the brain. Aberrant GABA\(_A\)R activity or regulation is observed in various neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and mental illnesses, including epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia. Benzodiazepines, anesthetics and other pharmaceutics targeting these receptors find broad clinical use, but their inherent lack of receptor subtype specificity causes unavoidable side effects, raising a need for new or adjuvant medications. In this review article, we introduce a new strategy to modulate GABAeric signaling: targeting the intracellular protein interactors of GABA\(_A\)Rs. Of special interest are scaffolding, anchoring and supporting proteins that display high GABA\(_A\)R subtype specificity. Recent efforts to target gephyrin, the major intracellular integrator of GABAergic signaling, confirm that GABA\(_A\)R-associated proteins can be successfully targeted through diverse molecules, including recombinant proteins, intrabodies, peptide-based probes and small molecules. Small-molecule artemisinins and peptides derived from endogenous interactors, that specifically target the universal receptor binding site of gephyrin, acutely affect synaptic GABA\(_A\)R numbers and clustering, modifying neuronal transmission. Interference with GABA\(_A\)R trafficking provides another way to modulate inhibitory signaling. Peptides blocking the binding site of GABA\(_A\)R to AP2 increase the surface concentration of GABA\(_A\)R clusters and enhance GABAergic signaling. Engineering of gephyrin binding peptides delivered superior means to interrogate neuronal structure and function. Fluorescent peptides, designed from gephyrin binders, enable live neuronal staining and visualization of gephyrin in the post synaptic sites with submicron resolution. We anticipate that in the future, novel fluorescent probes, with improved size and binding efficiency, may find wide application in super resolution microscopy studies, enlightening the nanoscale architecture of the inhibitory synapse. Broader studies on GABA\(_A\)R accessory proteins and the identification of the exact molecular binding interfaces and affinities will advance the development of novel GABA\(_A\)R modulators and following in vivo studies will reveal their clinical potential as adjuvant or stand-alone drugs.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author: Vladimir Khayenko, Hans Michael Maric
URN:urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-201876
Document Type:Journal article
Faculties:Fakultät für Biologie / Theodor-Boveri-Institut für Biowissenschaften
Fakultät für Biologie / Rudolf-Virchow-Zentrum
Language:English
Parent Title (English):Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Year of Completion:2019
Volume:12
Issue:162
Source:Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 2019, 12:162. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2019.00162
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2019.00162
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Tag:GABAA receptors; collybistin; dimeric peptide; fluorescent probes; gephyrin; peptide inhibitor design; protein-protein interaction (PPI); super resolution microscopy
Release Date:2020/03/26
Licence (German):License LogoCC BY: Creative-Commons-Lizenz: Namensnennung 4.0 International