Teleoperation Interfaces in Human-Robot Teams

Benutzerschnittstellen für Teleoperation in Mensch-Roboter Teams

• This work deals with teams in teleoperation scenarios, where one human team partner (supervisor) guides and controls multiple remote entities (either robotic or human) and coordinates their tasks. Such a team needs an appropriate infrastructure for sharing information and commands. The robots need to have a level of autonomy, which matches the assigned task. The humans in the team have to be provided with autonomous support, e.g. for information integration. Design and capabilities of the human-robot interfaces will strongly influence the perfoThis work deals with teams in teleoperation scenarios, where one human team partner (supervisor) guides and controls multiple remote entities (either robotic or human) and coordinates their tasks. Such a team needs an appropriate infrastructure for sharing information and commands. The robots need to have a level of autonomy, which matches the assigned task. The humans in the team have to be provided with autonomous support, e.g. for information integration. Design and capabilities of the human-robot interfaces will strongly influence the performance of the team as well as the subjective feeling of the human team partners. Here, it is important to elaborate the information demand as well as how information is presented. Such human-robot systems need to allow the supervisor to gain an understanding of what is going on in the remote environment (situation awareness) by providing the necessary information. This includes achieving fast assessment of the robot´s or remote human´s state. Processing, integration and organization of data as well as suitable autonomous functions support decision making and task allocation and help to decrease the workload in this multi-entity teleoperation task. Interaction between humans and robots is improved by a common world model and a responsive system and robots. The remote human profits from a simplified user interface providing exactly the information needed for the actual task at hand. The topic of this thesis is the investigation of such teleoperation interfaces in human-robot teams, especially for high-risk, time-critical, and dangerous tasks. The aim is to provide a suitable human-robot team structure as well as analyze the demands on the user interfaces. On one side, it will be looked on the theoretical background (model, interactions, and information demand). On the other side, real implementations for system, robots, and user interfaces are presented and evaluated as testbeds for the claimed requirements. Rescue operations, more precisely fire-fighting, was chosen as an exemplary application scenario for this work. The challenges in such scenarios are high (highly dynamic environments, high risk, time criticality etc.) and it can be expected that results can be transferred to other applications, which have less strict requirements. The present work contributes to the introduction of human-robot teams in task-oriented scenarios, such as working in high risk domains, e.g. fire-fighting. It covers the theoretical background of the required system, the analysis of related human factors concepts, as well as discussions on implementation. An emphasis is placed on user interfaces, their design, requirements and user testing, as well as on the used techniques (three-dimensional sensor data representation, mixed reality, and user interface design guidelines). Further, the potential integration of 3D sensor data as well as the visualization on stereo visualization systems is introduced.
• Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Verbesserung von Mensch-Roboter Interaktion in Mensch-Roboter Teams für Teleoperation Szenarien, wie z.B. robotergestützte Feuerwehreinsätze. Hierbei wird ein Konzept und eine Architektur für ein System zur Unterstützung von Teleoperation von Mensch-Roboter Teams vorgestellt. Die Anforderungen an Informationsaustausch und -verarbeitung, insbesondere für die Anwendung Rettungseinsatz, werden ausgearbeitet. Weiterhin wird das Design der Benutzerschnittstellen für Mensch-Roboter Teams dargestellt und PrinzipieDiese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Verbesserung von Mensch-Roboter Interaktion in Mensch-Roboter Teams für Teleoperation Szenarien, wie z.B. robotergestützte Feuerwehreinsätze. Hierbei wird ein Konzept und eine Architektur für ein System zur Unterstützung von Teleoperation von Mensch-Roboter Teams vorgestellt. Die Anforderungen an Informationsaustausch und -verarbeitung, insbesondere für die Anwendung Rettungseinsatz, werden ausgearbeitet. Weiterhin wird das Design der Benutzerschnittstellen für Mensch-Roboter Teams dargestellt und Prinzipien für Teleoperation-Systeme und Benutzerschnittstellen erarbeitet. Alle Studien und Ansätze werden in einem Prototypen-System implementiert und in verschiedenen Benutzertests abgesichert. Erweiterungsmöglichkeiten zum Einbinden von 3D Sensordaten und die Darstellung auf Stereovisualisierungssystemen werden gezeigt.

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