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Testing Models with Higher Dimensional Effective Interactions at the LHC and Dark Matter Experiments
(2013)

Dark matter and non-zero neutrino masses are possible hints for new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such potential consequences of new physics can be described by effective field theories in a model independent way. It is possible that the dominant contribution to low-energy effects of new physics is generated by operators of dimension d>5, e.g., due to an additional symmetry. Since these are more suppressed than the usually discussed lower dimensional operators, they can lead to extremly weak interactions even if new physics appears at comparatively low scales. Thus neutrino mass models can be connected to TeV scale physics, for instance. The possible existence of TeV scale particles is interesting, since they can be potentially observed at collider experiments, such as the Large Hadron Collider. Hence, we first recapitulate the generation of neutrino masses by higher dimensional effective operators in a supersymmetric framework. In addition, we discuss processes that can be used to test these models at the Large Hadron Collider. The introduction of new particles can affect the running of gauge couplings. Hence, we study the compatibilty of these models with Grand Unified Theories. The required extension of these models can imply the existence of new heavy quarks, which requires the consideration of cosmological constraints. Finally, higher dimensional effective operators can not only generate small neutrino masses. They also can be used to discuss the interactions relevant for dark matter detection experiments. Thus we apply the methods established for the study of neutrino mass models to the systematic discussion of higher dimensional effective operators generating dark matter interactions.