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This work deals with the development and application of novel quantum Monte Carlo methods to simulate fermion-boson models. Our developments are based on the path-integral formalism, where the bosonic degrees of freedom are integrated out exactly to obtain a retarded fermionic interaction. We give an overview of three methods that can be used to simulate retarded interactions. In particular, we develop a novel quantum Monte Carlo method with global directed-loop updates that solves the autocorrelation problem of previous approaches and scales linearly with system size. We demonstrate its efficiency for the Peierls transition in the Holstein model and discuss extensions to other fermion-boson models as well as spin-boson models. Furthermore, we show how with the help of generating functionals bosonic observables can be recovered directly from the Monte Carlo configurations. This includes estimators for the boson propagator, the fidelity susceptibility, and the specific heat of the Holstein model. The algorithmic developments of this work allow us to study the specific heat of the spinless Holstein model covering its entire parameter range. Its key features are explained from the single-particle spectral functions of electrons and phonons. In the adiabatic limit, the spectral properties are calculated exactly as a function of temperature using a classical Monte Carlo method and compared to results for the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model.

This thesis deals with quantum Monte Carlo simulations of correlated low dimensional electron systems. The correlation that we have in mind is always given by the Hubbard type electron electron interaction in various settings. To facilitate this task, we develop the necessary methods in the first part. We develop the continuous time interaction expansion quantum algorithm in a manner suitable for the treatment of effective and non-equilibrium problems. In the second part of this thesis we consider various applications of the algorithms. First we examine a correlated one-dimensional chain of electrons that is subject to some form of quench dynamics where we suddenly switch off the Hubbard interaction. We find the light-cone-like Lieb-Robinson bounds and forms of restricted equilibration subject to the conserved quantities. Then we consider a Hubbard chain subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling in thermal equilibrium. This system could very well be realized on a surface with the help of metallic adatoms. We find that we can analytically connect the given model to a model without spin-orbit coupling. This link enabled us to interpret various results for the standard Hubbard model, such as the single-particle spectra, now in the context of the Hubbard model with Rashba spin-orbit interaction. And finally we have considered a magnetic impurity in a host consisting of a topological insulator. We find that the impurity still exhibits the same features as known from the single impurity Anderson model. Additionally we study the effects of the impurity in the bath and we find that in the parameter regime where the Kondo singlet is formed the edge state of the topological insulator is rerouted around the impurity.

In this thesis, we investigate aspects of the physics of heavy-fermion systems and correlated topological insulators.
We numerically solve the interacting Hamiltonians that model the physical systems using quantum Monte Carlo algorithms
to access both ground-state and finite-temperature observables.
Initially, we focus on the metamagnetic transition in the Kondo lattice model for heavy fermions.
On the basis of the dynamical mean-field theory and the dynamical cluster approximation,
our calculations point towards a continuous transition, where the signatures of metamagnetism are linked to a Lifshitz transition of heavy-fermion bands.
In the second part of the thesis, we study various aspects of magnetic pi fluxes in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model of a correlated topological insulator.
We describe a numerical measurement of the topological index, based on the localized mid-gap states that are provided by pi flux insertions.
Furthermore, we take advantage of the intrinsic spin degree of freedom of a pi flux to devise instances of interacting quantum spin systems.
In the third part of the thesis, we introduce and characterize the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on the pi flux honeycomb lattice.
We place particular emphasis on the correlations effects along the one-dimensional boundary of the lattice and
compare results from a bosonization study with finite-size quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, Aufschluß über die unterschiedliche Qualität hierarchischer und nicht-hierarchischer (partionierender) Clusteranalyseverfahren zu gewinnen. Die Reproduktionsgüte beider Clusteranalyse-Varianten wurde anhand von 200 Monte-Carlo-Datensätzen (multivariat normalverteilte Mixturen) zu überprüfen versucht, wobei jeweils unterschiedliche Proportionen der Daten-Elemente klassifiZiert werden mußten. Es zeigte sich, daß insgesamt gesehen die hierarchischen Algorithmen nach WARD und LANCE-WILUAMS am besten dazu in der Lage waren, die vorgegebenen Datenstrukturen zu reproduzieren, andererseits aber die herangezogenen partitionierenden KMEANS-Verfahren nicht schlechter abschnitten, wenn die Lösung der WARD-Technik als Start-Partition vorgegeben wurde.

In this thesis I present results concerning realistic calculations of correlated fermionic many-body systems. One of the main objectives of this work was the implementation of a hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-HYB) algorithm and of a flexible self-consistency loop based on the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). DMFT enables us to treat strongly correlated electron systems numerically. After the implementation and extensive testing of the program we investigated different problems to answer open questions concerning correlated systems and their numerical treatment.

Background: Patterns that arise from an ecological process can be driven as much from the landscape over which the process is run as it is by some intrinsic properties of the process itself. The disentanglement of these effects is aided if it possible to run models of the process over artificial landscapes with controllable spatial properties. A number of different methods for the generation of so-called ‘neutral landscapes’ have been developed to provide just such a tool. Of these methods, a particular class that simulate fractional Brownian motion have shown particular promise. The existing methods of simulating fractional Brownian motion suffer from a number of problems however: they are often not easily generalisable to an arbitrary number of dimensions and produce outputs that can exhibit some undesirable artefacts. Methodology: We describe here an updated algorithm for the generation of neutral landscapes by fractional Brownian motion that do not display such undesirable properties. Using Monte Carlo simulation we assess the anisotropic properties of landscapes generated using the new algorithm described in this paper and compare it against a popular benchmark algorithm. Conclusion/Significance: The results show that the existing algorithm creates landscapes with values strongly correlated in the diagonal direction and that the new algorithm presented here corrects this artefact. A number of extensions of the algorithm described here are also highlighted: we describe how the algorithm can be employed to generate landscapes that display different properties in different dimensions and how they can be combined with an environmental gradient to produce landscapes that combine environmental variation at the local and macro scales.

In this thesis we apply recently developed, as well as sophisticated quantum Monte Carlo methods to numerically investigate models of strongly correlated electron systems on honeycomb structures. The latter are of particular interest owing to their unique properties when simulating electrons on them, like the relativistic dispersion, strong quantum fluctuations and their resistance against instabilities. This work covers several projects including the advancement of the weak-coupling continuous time quantum Monte Carlo and its application to zero temperature and phonons, quantum phase transitions of valence bond solids in spin-1/2 Heisenberg systems using projector quantum Monte Carlo in the valence bond basis, and the magnetic field induced transition to a canted antiferromagnet of the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice. The emphasis lies on two projects investigating the phase diagram of the SU(2) and the SU(N)-symmetric Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice. At sufficiently low temperatures, condensed-matter systems tend to develop order. An exception are quantum spin-liquids, where fluctuations prevent a transition to an ordered state down to the lowest temperatures. Previously elusive in experimentally relevant microscopic two-dimensional models, we show by means of large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(2) Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice, that a quantum spin-liquid emerges between the state described by massless Dirac fermions and an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator. This unexpected quantum-disordered state is found to be a short-range resonating valence bond liquid, akin to the one proposed for high temperature superconductors. Inspired by the rich phase diagrams of SU(N) models we study the SU(N)-symmetric Hubbard Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice to investigate the reliability of 1/N corrections to large-N results by means of numerically exact QMC simulations. We study the melting of phases as correlations increase with decreasing N and determine whether the quantum spin liquid found in the SU(2) Hubbard model at intermediate coupling is a specific feature, or also exists in the unconstrained t-J model and higher symmetries.

In this PhD thesis, the effect of strain on heteroepitaxial growth is investigated by means of Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. In this context the lattice misfit, arising from the different lattice constants of the adsorbate and the substrate material, is of particular interest. As a consequence, this lattice misfit leads to long-range elastic strain effects having strong influence on the entire growing crystal and its resulting surface morphology. The main focus of this work is the investigation of different strain relaxation mechanisms and their controlling parameters, revealing interesting consequences on the subsequent growth. Since epitaxial growth is carried out under conditions far away from thermodynamic equilibrium, it is strongly determined by surface kinetics. At this point the relevant kinetic microscopic processes are described, followed by theoretical considerations of heteroepitaxial growth disclosing an overview over several independent methodological streams, used to model epitaxy in different time and length scales, as well as the characterization of misfit dislocations and the classification of epitaxial growth modes based on thermodynamic considerations. The epitaxial growth is performed by means of Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which allows for the consideration of long range effects in systems with lateral extension of few hundred atoms. By using an off-lattice simulation model the particles are able to leave their predefined lattice sites, which is an indispensable condition for simulating strain relaxation mechanisms. The main idea of our used model is calculating the activation energy of all relevant thermally activated processes by using simple pair potentials and then realizing the dynamics by performing each event according to its probability by means of a rejection-free algorithm method. In addition, the crystal relaxation procedure, the grid-based particle access method, which accelerates the simulation enormously, and the efficient implementation of the algorithm are discussed. To study the influence of long range elastic strain effects, the main part of this work was realized on the two dimensional triangular lattice, which can be treated as a cross section of the real three dimensional case. Chapter 4 deals with the formation of misfit dislocations as a strain relaxation mechanism and the resulting consequences on the subsequent heteroepitaxial growth. We can distinguish between two principally different dislocation formation mechanisms, depending strongly on the sign as well as on the magnitude of the misfit, but also the surface kinetics need to be taken into account. Additionally, the dislocations affect the lattice spacings of the crystal whose observed progression is in qualitative good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, the dislocations influence the subsequent growth of the adsorbate film, since the potential energy of an adatom is modulated by buried dislocations. A clear correlation between the lateral positions of buried dislocations and the positions of mounds grown on the surface can be observed. In chapter 5, an alternative strain relaxation mechanism is studied: the formation of three dimensional islands enables the particles to approach their preferred lattice spacing. We demonstrate that it is possible to adjust within our simulation model each of the three epitaxial growth modes: Volmer–Weber, Frank–van der Merve or layer-by-layer, and Stranski–Krastanov growth mode. Moreover, we can show that the emerging growth mode depends in principle on two parameters: on the one hand the interaction strength of adsorbate particles with each other, compared to the interaction of adsorbate with substrate particles, and on the other hand the lattice misfit between adsorbate and substrate particles. A sensible choice of these two parameters allows the realization of each growth mode within the simulations. In conclusion, the formation of nanostructures controlled by an underlying dislocation network can be applied in the concept of self-organized pattern formation as well as by the tendency to form ordered arrays of strain-induced three dimensional grown islands. In chapter 6, we extend our model to three dimensions and investigate the effect of strain on growth on bcc(100) surfaces. We introduce an anisotropic potential yielding a stable bcc lattice structure within the off-lattice representation. We can show that the strain built up in submonolayer islands is mainly released at the island edges and the lattice misfit has strong influence on the diffusion process on the plane surface as well as on the situation at island edges with eminent consequences on the appearance of submonolayer islands.

In this PhD thesis, we study the heteroepitaxial crystal growth by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Of particular interest in this work is the influence of the lattice mismatch of the adsorbates relative to the substrate on surface structures. In the framework of an off-lattice model, we consider one monolayer of adsorbate and investigate the emerging nanopatterns in equilibrium and their formation during growth. In chapter 1, a brief introduction is given, which describes the role of computer simulations in the field of the physics of condensed matter. Chapter 2 is devoted to some technical basics of experimental methods of molecular beam epitaxy and the theoretical description. Before a model for the simulation can be designed, it is necessary to make some considerations of the single processes which occur during epitaxial growth. For that purpose we look at an experimental setup and extract the main microscopic processes. Afterwards a brief overview of different theoretical concepts describing that physical procedures is given. In chapter 3, the model used in the simulations is presented. The aim is to investigate the growth of an fcc crystal in the [111] direction. In order to keep the simulation times within a feasible limit a simple pair potential, the Lennard-Jones potential, with continuous particle positions is used, which are necessary to describe effects resulting from the atomic mismatch in the crystal. Furthermore the detailed algorithm is introduced which is based on the idea to calculate the barrier of each diffusion event and to use the barriers in a rejection-free method. Chapter 4 is attended to the simulation of equilibrium. The influence of different parameters on the emerging structures in the first monolayer upon the surface, which is completely covered with two adsorbate materials, is studied. Especially the competition between binding energy and strain leads to very interesting pattern formations like islands or stripes. In chapter 5 the results of growth simulations are presented. At first, we introduce a model in order to realize off-lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Since the costs in simulation time are enormous, some simplifications in the calculation of diffusion barriers are necessary and therefore the previous model is supplemented with some elements from the so-called ball and spring model. The next point is devoted to the calculation of energy barriers followed by the presentation of the growth simulations. Binary systems with only one sort of adsorbate are investigated as well as ternary systems with two different adsorbates. Finally, a comparison to the equilibrium simulations is drawn. Chapter 6 contains some concluding remarks and gives an outlook to possible further investigations.

Despite its precise agreement with the experiment, the validity of the standard model (SM) of elementary particle physics is ensured only up to a scale of several hundred GeV so far. Even more, the inclusion of gravity into an unifying theory poses a problem which cannot be solved by ordinary quantum field theory (QFT). String theory, which is the most popular ansatz for a unified theory, predicts QFT on noncommutative space-time as a low energy limit. Nevertheless, independently of the motivation given by string theory, the nonlocality inherent to noncommutative QFT opens up the possibility for the inclusion of gravity. There are no theoretical predictions for the energy scale Lambda_NC at which noncommutative effects arise and it can be assumed to lie in the TeV range, which is the energy range probed by the next generation of colliders. Within this work we study the phenomenological consequences of a possible realization of QFT on noncommutative space-time relying on this assumption. The motivation for this thesis was given by the gap in the range of phenomenological studies of noncommutative effects in collider experiments, due to the absence in the literature of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) studies regarding noncommutative QFTs. In the first part we thus performed a phenomenological analysis of the hadronic process pp -> Z gamma -> l^+l^- gamma at the LHC and of electron-positron pair annihilation into a Z boson and a photon at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The noncommutative extension of the SM considered within this work relies on two building blocks: the Moyal-Weyl star-product of functions on ordinary space-time and the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter relate the ordinary fields and parameters to their noncommutative counterparts such that ordinary gauge transformations induce noncommutative gauge transformations. This requirement is expressed by a set of inhomogeneous differential equations (the gauge equivalence equations) which are solved by the Seiberg-Witten maps order by order in the noncommutative parameter Theta. Thus, by means of the Moyal-Weyl star-product and the Seiberg-Witten maps a noncommutative extension of the SM as an effective theory as expansion in powers of Theta can be achieved, providing the framework of our phenomenological studies. A consequence of the noncommutativity of space-time is the violation of rotational invariance with respect to the beam axis. This effect shows up in the azimuthal dependence of cross sections, which is absent in the SM as well as in other models beyond the SM. Thus, the azimuthal dependence of the cross section is a typical signature of noncommutativity and can be used in order to discriminate it against other new physics effects. We have found this dependence to be best suited for deriving the sensitivity bounds on the noncommutative scale Lambda_NC. By studying pp -> Z gamma -> l^+l^- gamma to first order in the noncommutative parameter Theta, we show in the first part of this work that measurements at the LHC are sensitive to noncommutative effects only in certain cases, giving bounds on the noncommutative scale of Lambda_NC > 1.2 TeV. Our result improved the bounds present in the literature coming from past and present collider experiments by one order of magnitude. In order to explore the whole parameter range of the noncommutativity, ILC studies are required. By means of e^+e^- -> Z gamma -> l^+l^- gamma to first order in Theta we have shown that ILC measurements are complementary to LHC measurements of the noncommutative parameters. In addition, the bounds on Lambda_NC derived from the ILC are significantly higher and reach Lambda_NC > 6 TeV. The second part of this work arose from the necessity to enlarge the range of validity of our model towards higher energies. Thus, we expand the neutral current sector of the noncommutative SM to second order in $\theta$. We found that, against the general expectation, the theory must be enlarged by additional parameters. The new parameters enter the theory as ambiguities of the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter are not uniquely determined and differ by homogeneous solutions of the gauge equivalence equations. The expectation was that the ambiguities correspond to field redefinitions and therefore should vanish in scattering matrix elements. However, we proved that this is not the case, and the ambiguities do affect physical observables. Our conjecture is, that every order in Theta will introduce new parameters to the theory. However, only the experiment can decide to what extent efforts with still higher orders in Theta are reasonable and will also give directions for the development of theoretical models of noncommutative QFTs.