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The aim of this thesis was to develop new automatic enhanced sampling methods by extending the idea of Parrinello’s metadynamics to multistate problems and by introducing new quantum-mechanical electronic collective variables. These methods open up a rich perspective for applications to the photophysical processes in complex molecular systems, which play a major role in many natural processes such as vision and photosynthesis, but also in the development of new materials for organic electronics, whose function depends on specific electronic properties such as biradicalicity.

In the context of quantum mechanical calculations, the properties of non-adiabatic coupling in a small system, the Shin-Metiu model, is investigated.
The transition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic dynamics is elucidated in modifying the electron-nuclear interaction. This allows the comparison of weakly correlated electron-nuclear motion with the case where the strong correlations determine the dynamics.
The studies of the model are extended to include spectroscopical transitions being present in two-dimensional and degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy.
Furthermore, the quantum and classical time-evolution of the coupled motion in the complete electron-nuclear phase space is compared for the two coupling cases.
Additionally, the numerically exact electron flux within the weak coupling case is compared to the Born-Oppenheimer treatment.
In the last part of the thesis, the model is extended to two dimensions.
The system then possesses potential energy surfaces which exhibit a typical 'Mexican hat'-like structure and a conical intersection in the adiabatic representation.
Thus, it is possible to map properties of the system onto a vibronic coupling (Jahn-Teller) hamiltonian. Exact wave-packet propagations as well as nuclear wave-packet dynamics in the adiabatic and diabatic representation are performed.

Part 1 of this work describes the development of accurate physically grounded force fields for
intermolecular Cation-π interactions based on SAPT energy decomposition analysis.
The presented results demonstrate the benefits of the used DFT-SAPT method to describe non-bonding
interactions. First of all, this method is able to reproduce the high level CCSD(T) energy values
but using much less computational time. Second it provides the possibility to separate the total
intermolecular interaction energy into several physically meaningful contributions. The relative
contributions of the dimers investigated can be seen in Fig. 6.16. In Tab. 6.3 the percentage
contribution of the attractive energy parts to the stabilization energy is shown. The polarization
energy is important for the NH+...C6H6 interaction, whereas it becomes less crucial
considering other dimers. The dispersion energy contribution is large in the case of
the C6H6...H2O dimers, whereas it is relatively less important for the NH+...C6H6
interaction. The electrostatic energy contributes a large amount of stabilizing energy
in all considered dimer interactions. ...

Theoretical Investigations on the Interactions of Small Compounds with their Molecular Environments
(2015)

In the first part of this work, a combination of theoretical methods for the rational design of covalent inhibitor is presented. Starting from the crystal structure of the covalent complex of a lead compound, quantum mechanical and QM/MM calculations were used to derive the exact geometry of the preceeding non-covalent enzyme inhibitor complex. The geometry of the latter mainly determines the reactivity of the inhibitor against its target enzyme concerning the formation of the covalent bond towards an active site residue. Therefore, this geometry was used as starting point for the optimization of the substitution pattern of the inhibitor such as to increase its binding affinity without loosing its ability to covalently bind to the target protein. The optimization of the chemical structure was supported by using docking procedures, which are best suited to estimate binding affinities that arise from the introduced changes. A screening of the novel substitution patterns resulted in a first generation of model compounds which were further tested for their reactivity against the target. Dynamic simulations on the novel compounds revealed that the orientation that compounds adopt within the active site are such that a covalent interaction with the enzyme is no longer possible. Hence, the chemical structure was further modified, including not only changes in the substituents but also within the core of the molecule. Docking experiments have been conducted to assure sufficiently high binding affinities and to obtain the most favored binding poses. Those have then again been used for dynamic simulations which resulted in structures, for which the bond formation process appeared feasible. A final series of QM/MM calculations considering various protonation states was computed to estimate the reaction energies for the covalent attachment of the inhibitor to the enzyme. The theoretical results indicate a reasonable high inhibition potency of the novel compounds.
The second part concentrates on the environmental influences on the electron density of an inhibitor molecule. Therefore, a vinylsulfone-based model compound was selected for which an experimental crystal structure for the pure compound as well as a theoretically determined enzyme-inhibitor complex have been available. To provide reference data for the larger systems, the conformational space of the isolated molecule was screened for favorable geometries which were later compared to those within the crystal and protein surrounding. The geometry of the crystal structure could readily be taken from the experimental data whereas calculations on the protein complex revealed four potential non-covalent complexes exhibiting different arrangements of the molecule within the active site of the protein as well as two possible protonation states of the catalytic dyad. Hence, all four protein complexes have been compared to the crystal structure of the molecule as well as against the more favorable geometries of the isolated molecule being determined within vacuum or aqueous surrounding. Whereas the molecule itself was found to adopt comparable geometries within all investigated environments, the interactions pattern between the crystal surrounding and the protein differed largely from each other. The favorable formation of dimers within the crystal has a strong stabilizing effect and explains the extraordinarily good quality of the crystal. Within the protein however, repulsive forces have been found between the protein and the inhibitor. The origin of the repulsion could be traced back to effect of on of the substituents to the vinyl scaffold. The difference in the chemical structure in comparison to a well known inhibitor might also explain the experimentally found loss of activity for the model compound in comparison to K11777.

Die vorliegende Dissertation behandelt zum einen die mechanistischen Details von Bindungsaktivierungs-Reaktionen an Disauerstoff und weißem Phosphor mit den Komplexfragmenten 1[Ni(iPr2Im)2] und 3[(η5-C5H5)Co(iPr2Im)] und zum anderen die Regioselektivität von oxidativen Insertionsreaktionen des 1[Ni(iPr2Im)2]-Komplexfragments in C–X-Bindungen substituierter Fluoraromaten (X = F, OCH3, CN, H).

The visualization of energy functions is based on the possibility of separating different degrees of freedom. The most important one is the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation, which separates nucleus and electron movements. This allows the illustration of the potential energy as a function of the nuclei coordinates. Minima of the surface correspond to stable points like isomers or conformers. They are important for predicting the stability or thermodynamical of a system. Stationary points of ﬁrst order correspond to transition points. They describe phase transitions, chemical reaction, or conformational changes. Furthermore, the partition function connects the potential hypersurface to the free energy of the system. The aim of the present work is the development and application of new approaches for the efﬁcient exploration of multidimensional hypersurfaces. Initially, the Conformational Analysis and Search Tool (CAST) program was developed to create a basis for the new methods and algorithms. The development of CAST in object oriented C++ included, among other things, the implementation of a force ﬁeld, different interfaces to external programs, analysis tools, and optimization libraries. Descriptions of an energy landscape require knowledge about the most stable minima. The Gradient Only Tabu Search (GOTS) has been shown to be very efﬁcient in the optimization of mathematical test functions. Therefore, GOTS was taken as a starting point. Tabu-Search is based on the steepest descent - modest ascent strategy. The steepest descent is used for ﬁnding local minima, while the modest ascent is taken for leaving a minimum quickly. Furthermore, Tabu-Search is combined with an adaptive memory design to avoid cycling or returning. The highly accurate exploration of the phase space by Tabu-Search is often too expensive for complex optimization problems. Therefore, an algorithm for diversiﬁcation of the search is required. After exploration of the proximity of the search space, the algorithm would guide the search to new and hopefully promising parts of the phase space. First application of GOTS to conformational search revealed weaknesses in the diversiﬁcation search and the modest ascent part. On the one hand, the original methodology for diversiﬁcation is insufﬁciently diverse. The algorithm is considerably improved by combining the more local GOTS with the wider searching Basin Hopping (BH) approach. The second weak point is a too inaccurate and inefﬁcient modest ascent strategy. Analysis of common transition state search algorithms lead to the adaption of the Dimer-method to the Tabu-Search approach. The Dimer-method only requires the ﬁrst derivatives for locating the closest transition state. For conformational search, dihedral angles are usually the most ﬂexible degrees of freedom. Therefore, only those are used in the Dimer-method for leaving a local minimum. Furthermore, the exact localization of the reaction pathway and the transition state is not necessary as the local minimum position should only be departed as fast as possible. This allows for larger step sizes during the Dimer-search. In the following optimization step, all coordinates are relaxed to remove possible strains in the system. The new Tabu-Search method with Dimer-search delivers more and improved minima. Furthermore, the approach is faster for larger systems. For a system with approximately 1200 atoms, an acceleration of 40 was measured. The new approach was compared to Molecular Dynamics with optimization (MD), Simulated Annealing (SA), and BH with the help of conformational search problems of bio-organic systems. In all cases, a better performance was found. A comparison to the Monte Carlo Multiple Minima/Low Mode Sampling (MCMM/LM) method proved the outstanding performance of the new Tabu-Search approach. The solvation of the chignolin protein further revealed the possibility of uncovering discrepancies between the employed theoretical model and the experimental starting structure. Ligand optimization for improvement of x-ray structures was one further new application ﬁeld. Besides the global optimization, the search for transition states and reaction pathways is also of paramount importance. These points describe different transitions of stable states. Therefore, a new approach for the exploration of such cases was developed. The new approach is based on a global minimization of a hyperplane being perpendicular to the reaction coordinate. Minima of this reduced phase space belong to traces of transition states between reactant and product states on the unchanged hypersurface. Optimization to the closest transition state using the Dimer-method delivers paths lying between the initial and the ﬁnal state. An iterative approach ﬁnally yields complex reaction pathways with many intermediate local minima. The PathOpt algorithm was tested by means of rearrangements of argon clusters showing very promising results.

The present work presents investigations on energy and charge transport properties in organic crystals. Chapter 4 treats exciton transport in anthracene, which is an example for weakly coupled π-systems. The electronic coupling parameter is evaluated by the monomer transition density approach. With these and the reorganization energy hopping rates are calculated in the framework of the Marcus theory. Together with the knowledge of the crystal structure, these allow us to calculate the experimental accessible exciton diffusion lengths, whose isotropic part fits nicely within the scattering of experimental values found in the literature. Furthermore, the anisotropy of the exciton diffusion lengths is reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively correct. This chapter also contains studies about electron and hole transport in both polymorphs (α and β) of perylene. Reorganization energies as well as diffusion coefficients for both crystal structures and types of charge transport were calculated. The best transport is hole transport in β-perylene, but it is strongly isotropic. The preferred transport direction is along the b-axis of the unit cell with couplings of greater than 100 meV. However, there is no transport along the c-axis. The diffusion constant in b-direction is bigger by two orders of magnitude than in c-direction (62.7•10-6 m2/s vs. 0.4•10-6 m2/s). Charge transport is calculated to be strongly anisotropic for holes as well as electrons in both modifications. To verify these results experimental electron mobilities have been compared to the simulations. Good agreement was found with errors of less than 27%. As it was shown above, the calculation and measurement of transport properties between weakly coupled systems is possible. However, it is difficult to exactly determine the quality of the electronic coupling. For this reason a collaboration about strongly interacting π-systems was started between us and the research group of Prof. Ingo Fischer. There, [2.2]paracyclophanes and its derivates were investigated to show how hydroxyl substitution influences absorption properties. Overall, a combination of SCS-MP2 and SCS-CC2 performs best to address the description of geometric and electronic structures for both ground and excited states of these model systems as well as their parent compounds benzene and phenol. Only [2.2]paracyclophane shows a double minimum potential regarding a twist and shift motion between the benzene/phenol subunits towards each other. All other systems are less flexible due to their substitution pattern. Almost all [2.2]paracyclophanes display minor changes in their geometric structure upon excitation to the S1 state: The inter-ring distance shortens, but qualitatively they keep their shift and twist characteristics, although the extent of these deformations diminishes. The exception is p-DHPC, which turns from a shifted ground state structure into a twisted excited state structure. Consequently, the intensity of the 0-0 transition cannot be observed experimentally due to small Franck-Condon factors and impurities of o-DHPC. In the present thesis, the structures and their changes due to excitation are explained by electrostatic potentials as well as antibonding (bonding) HOMO (LUMO) orbitals. Adiabatic excitation energies have been corrected by ZPEs and result in accuracies with errors smaller than 0.1 eV. Note that corrections on the B3LYP level worsen the results and one has to apply SCS-CC2 to achieve this accuracy. These calculations allow an interpretation of the experimental [1+1]REMPI spectra. Band progressions of the twist, shift and breathing of the [2.2]paracyclophane skeleton vibrations have been identified and show good agreement to the experiment. This work shows that the substitution pattern in [2.2]paracyclophanes can have a significant impact on spectroscopic properties. Because these properties are directly linked to the transport properties of these materials, the hereby gained insight can be used to design materials with customized transport properties. It was shown that the SCS-CC2 method is very appropriate to predict the interaction between the π-systems

The spectroscopic properties of molecular aggregates have been investigated by means of quantum dynamical calculations. Thereby both linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques have been taken into account. For the simulation of absorption and CD-spectra, coupling effects were regarded as well as the relative orientation of the monomer units in order to determine the parameters by reproducing measured spectra. For a more detailled description, results from quantum chemical calculations have also been included. Furthermore, investigations on nonlinear spectroscopy of molecular dimers have been performed.

The first part of this work focuses on the characterization of systems which complex electronic structures require the application of multi-reference methods. The anti-tumor efficacy of the natural product Neocarzinostatin is based on the formation of diradicals and causes DNA cleavage and finally cytolysis. Computations on model systems performed in the present work show the influence of structural features on the mode of action and the efficacy of this antitumor-antibiotic. The cyclization of systems related to the enyne-cumulene framework like the enyne-allenes was investigated earlier and relations to the more unusual class of enyne-ketenes are analyzed. The class of enyne-ketenes (and also the enyne-allenes) show a broad spectrum of possible intermediates (diradicals, zwitterions, allenes). The electronic structures of these intermediates are also possible for the (heteroatom substituted) 1,2,4-cyclohexatriene and a model for their energetic sequence based on high-level multi-reference computations is proposed. In all three projects the application of multi-reference approaches is necessary to obtain a comprehensive picture of the reactivity and electronic structure but also shows up the limits inherently existing in the currently available programs with respect to the size of the molecules. In the second part, algorithms for a multi-reference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MR-MP2) program, designed to perform large-scale computations, were developed and implemented. The MR-MP2 approach represents the most cost-effective multireference ansatz and requires an efficient evaluation of the Hamilton matrix for which an algorithm is designed to instantly recognize only non-vanishing matrix elements and to employ the recurring interaction patterns of the Hamilton matrix. The direct construction of the Hamilton matrix is additionally parallelized to work on cluster environments.