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A mathematical optimal-control tumor therapy framework consisting of radio- and anti-angiogenesis control strategies that are included in a tumor growth model is investigated. The governing system, resulting from the combination of two well established models, represents the differential constraint of a non-smooth optimal control problem that aims at reducing the volume of the tumor while keeping the radio- and anti-angiogenesis chemical dosage to a minimum. Existence of optimal solutions is proved and necessary conditions are formulated in terms of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Based on this principle, a so-called sequential quadratic Hamiltonian (SQH) method is discussed and benchmarked with an “interior point optimizer―a mathematical programming language” (IPOPT-AMPL) algorithm. Results of numerical experiments are presented that successfully validate the SQH solution scheme. Further, it is shown how to choose the optimisation weights in order to obtain treatment functions that successfully reduce the tumor volume to zero.

This thesis deals with a new so-called sequential quadratic Hamiltonian (SQH) iterative scheme to solve optimal control problems with differential models and cost functionals ranging from smooth to discontinuous and non-convex. This scheme is based on the Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP) that provides necessary optimality conditions for an optimal solution. In this framework, a Hamiltonian function is defined that attains its minimum pointwise at the optimal solution of the corresponding optimal control problem. In the SQH scheme, this Hamiltonian function is augmented by a quadratic penalty term consisting of the current control function and the control function from the previous iteration. The heart of the SQH scheme is to minimize this augmented Hamiltonian function pointwise in order to determine a control update. Since the PMP does not require any differ- entiability with respect to the control argument, the SQH scheme can be used to solve optimal control problems with both smooth and non-convex or even discontinuous cost functionals. The main achievement of the thesis is the formulation of a robust and efficient SQH scheme and a framework in which the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme can be carried out. In this framework, convergence of the scheme means that the calculated solution fulfills the PMP condition. The governing differential models of the considered optimal control problems are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). In the PDE case, elliptic and parabolic equations as well as the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation are considered. For both the ODE and the PDE cases, assumptions are formulated for which it can be proved that a solution to an optimal control problem has to fulfill the PMP. The obtained results are essential for the discussion of the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme. This analysis has two parts. The first one is the well-posedness of the scheme which means that all steps of the scheme can be carried out and provide a result in finite time. The second part part is the PMP consistency of the solution. This means that the solution of the SQH scheme fulfills the PMP conditions. In the ODE case, the following results are obtained that state well-posedness of the SQH scheme and the PMP consistency of the corresponding solution. Lemma 7 states the existence of a pointwise minimum of the augmented Hamiltonian. Lemma 11 proves the existence of a weight of the quadratic penalty term such that the minimization of the corresponding augmented Hamiltonian results in a control updated that reduces the value of the cost functional. Lemma 12 states that the SQH scheme stops if an iterate is PMP optimal. Theorem 13 proves the cost functional reducing properties of the SQH control updates. The main result is given in Theorem 14, which states the pointwise convergence of the SQH scheme towards a PMP consistent solution. In this ODE framework, the SQH method is applied to two optimal control problems. The first one is an optimal quantum control problem where it is shown that the SQH method converges much faster to an optimal solution than a globalized Newton method. The second optimal control problem is an optimal tumor treatment problem with a system of coupled highly non-linear state equations that describe the tumor growth. It is shown that the framework in which the convergence of the SQH scheme is proved is applicable for this highly non-linear case. Next, the case of PDE control problems is considered. First a general framework is discussed in which a solution to the corresponding optimal control problem fulfills the PMP conditions. In this case, many theoretical estimates are presented in Theorem 59 and Theorem 64 to prove in particular the essential boundedness of the state and adjoint variables. The steps for the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme are analogous to that of the ODE case and result in Theorem 27 that states the PMP consistency of the solution obtained with the SQH scheme. This framework is applied to different elliptic and parabolic optimal control problems, including linear and bilinear control mechanisms, as well as non-linear state equations. Moreover, the SQH method is discussed for solving a state-constrained optimal control problem in an augmented formulation. In this case, it is shown in Theorem 30 that for increasing the weight of the augmentation term, which penalizes the violation of the state constraint, the measure of this state constraint violation by the corresponding solution converges to zero. Furthermore, an optimal control problem with a non-smooth L\(^1\)-tracking term and a non-smooth state equation is investigated. For this purpose, an adjoint equation is defined and the SQH method is used to solve the corresponding optimal control problem. The final part of this thesis is devoted to a class of FP models related to specific stochastic processes. The discussion starts with a focus on random walks where also jumps are included. This framework allows a derivation of a discrete FP model corresponding to a continuous FP model with jumps and boundary conditions ranging from absorbing to totally reflecting. This discussion allows the consideration of the drift-control resulting from an anisotropic probability of the steps of the random walk. Thereafter, in the PMP framework, two drift-diffusion processes and the corresponding FP models with two different control strategies for an optimal control problem with an expectation functional are considered. In the first strategy, the controls depend on time and in the second one, the controls depend on space and time. In both cases a solution to the corresponding optimal control problem is characterized with the PMP conditions, stated in Theorem 48 and Theorem 49. The well-posedness of the SQH scheme is shown in both cases and further conditions are discussed that ensure the convergence of the SQH scheme to a PMP consistent solution. The case of a space and time dependent control strategy results in a special structure of the corresponding PMP conditions that is exploited in another solution method, the so-called direct Hamiltonian (DH) method.

In this work models for molecular networks consisting of ordinary differential equations are extended by terms that include the interaction of the corresponding molecular network with the environment that the molecular network is embedded in. These terms model the effects of the external stimuli on the molecular network. The usability of this extension is demonstrated with a model of a circadian clock that is extended with certain terms and reproduces data from several experiments at the same time.
Once the model including external stimuli is set up, a framework is developed in order to calculate external stimuli that have a predefined desired effect on the molecular network. For this purpose the task of finding appropriate external stimuli is formulated as a mathematical optimal control problem for which in order to solve it a lot of mathematical methods are available. Several methods are discussed and worked out in order to calculate a solution for the corresponding optimal control problem. The application of the framework to find pharmacological intervention points or effective drug combinations is pointed out and discussed. Furthermore the framework is related to existing network analysis tools and their combination for network analysis in order to find dedicated external stimuli is discussed.
The total framework is verified with biological examples by comparing the calculated results with data from literature. For this purpose platelet aggregation is investigated based on a corresponding gene regulatory network and associated receptors are detected. Furthermore a transition from one to another type of T-helper cell is analyzed in a tumor setting where missing agents are calculated to induce the corresponding switch in vitro. Next a gene regulatory network of a myocardiocyte is investigated where it is shown how the presented framework can be used to compare different treatment strategies with respect to their beneficial effects and side effects quantitatively. Moreover a constitutively activated signaling pathway, which thus causes maleficent effects, is modeled and intervention points with corresponding treatment strategies are determined that steer the gene regulatory network from a pathological expression pattern to physiological one again.