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Molecules containing multiple bonds between atoms—most often in the form of olefins—are ubiquitous in nature, commerce, and science, and as such have a huge impact on everyday life. Given their prominence, over the last few decades, frequent attempts have been made to perturb the structure and reactivity of multiply-bound species through bending and twisting. However, only modest success has been achieved in the quest to completely twist double bonds in order to homolytically cleave the associated π bond. Here, we present the isolation of double-bond-containing species based on boron, as well as their fully twisted diradical congeners, by the incorporation of attached groups with different electronic properties. The compounds comprise a structurally authenticated set of diamagnetic multiply-bound and diradical singly-bound congeners of the same class of compound.

Large-scale multireference configuration interaction (MRD-CI) calculations in a quite flexible AO basis are employed to study the energy hypersurface for the reaction intermediate FC\(_2\)H\(_4\) • The reaction F + C\(_2\)H\(_4\) -> FC\(_2\)H\(_4\) as weil as the 1,2 migration of the fluorine atom in FC\(_2\)H\(_4\) is investigated. In addition the rotation around the CC bond in the optimum conformation is studied. The absolute minimum in the potential energy is found for the asymmetric structure but the symmetric structure is also found to be stable with respect to the dissociation, so that a shuttling of the fluorine atom is in principle possible but highly unlikely because ( l) the activation energy is high ( II 5-130 kJ fmol) and the saddle point lies only 4(}-50 kJ jmol below the dissociation Iimit of F + C\(_2\)H\(_4\) and (2) the competitive motion, i.e., rotation around the CC axis, is nearly free (I 1-17 kJ/mol).

The hyperfine coupling constants for the \(^3\)Σ\(-\) ground state of the NH molecule are determined by configuration interaction calculations whereby the infl.uence of polarization functions as weil as of the configuration space on the spin polarization mechanism is analysed. The dipolar part Au(N) and Au(H) can be obtained very reliably without much computational effort (A .. (N) == -45·3 MHz and A"(H) = -62·3 MHz). The value for the isotropic contribution a1.., in the best AO basis and MRD-CI treatment is - 64·5 MHz for H and 16·6 MHz for nitrogen compared to the corresponding experimental quantities of -66 MHz and 19 MHz respectively. Their determination depends on a subtle balance of the lu, 2u and 3u shell correlation description, whereby the dominant contribution to a1..,(H) results from the 2u shell. It is shown that the often good agreement of a110 values with experiment in a small basis singledouble configuration interaction treatment results from a cancellation of two errors.

Multi-reference configuration interaction calculations employing various orbital transformations are undertaken to obtain the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant a\(_{iso\) in nitrogen and a\(_{iso\) (H) in the CH molecule. The natural orbital (NO) basis is found to be more effective than the simple RHF-MO basis; the most obvious is a basis of spin natural orbitals (SNO). It is found that a\(_{iso\) is approached from opposite sides in the NO and 2s shell SNO basis if the CI expansion is increased. Both results are within a few percent of the full CI Iimit for the nitrogen atorn (in the given AO basis) and the experimental value for Hin the CH radical. Various features ofthe SNO are discussed.

Large-scale multireference configuration interaction calculations in a double·t·type AO basis including polarization functions are carried out for the potential surface of the ClC\(_2\)H\(_4\9 system. The charge distribution for various extreme points of the surface is discussed. The absolute minimum is found for an asymmetric ClC2H4 structure. The symmetrical bridged nuclear conformation is also found to be stable with respect to dissociation into Cl + C\(_2\)H\(_4\)• The activation energy for rotation about the C-C axis is calculated tobe around 18 kJ/mol, which is comparable tothat for the 1,2 migration {around 26 kJ/mol). The stereochemistry is governed by the fact that addition of CI to C\(_2\)H\(_4\) (or dissociation) is a two-step reaction proceeding through a symmetrica1 intermediate. The direct addition pathway possesses a small barrier of about 8 kJ jmol.

Large-acale multi-reference configuration interaction (MRD-CI) calculations in a quite flexible AO basis are employed to study the energy hypersurface for the reaction intermediates XC\(_3\)H\(_4\) with X = Cl, Br and F. Particular emphasis is therby placed on determining the equilibrium conformations, the CH\(_2\) rotation barrier and the energy surface for a possible bridging (shuttling motion (1a] of X between the two carbon centers). The absolute minimum in the potential energy surface is found in all three cases for the asymmetric ß-halo radical in general agreement with ESR data at an XCC angle of ca. 110°, a c-c separation somewhat shorter than a single bond and an approximate sp3 type hybridization (\(\alpha _2 \approx \) 135-140°). In FC\(_2\)H\(_4\) the energy difference between the minimum in the symmetric conformation and the absolute minimum is found to be more than 30 kcal so that shuttling seems impossible in agreement with experimental findings. In BrC\(_2\)H\(_4\) the difference between these two potential minima is only between 1-2 kcal, i.e., smaller than the barrier to CH\(_2\), rotation, so that· shuttling is favored, while ClC\(_2\)H\(_4\) takes an intermediate position between these extremes. The use of correlated wavefunctions is found to be quite important for such a study; the results are related to various kinetic studies of these radicals.

The hyperfine coupling constant for the nitrogen atom is evaluated by large-scale MRD-CI calculations. A detailed analysis of the charge density at the nucleus and the spin polarization in the ls and 2s shell as a function of various technical parameters is undertaken. Various (s, p) AO basis sets and the inftuence of correlation orbitals is investigated as weil as selection threshold and other properlies in CI calculations. The best value, obtained for the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant in an s, p, d basis, based on theoretical judgment of' best' quantities, is 9·9 MHz compared to 10·4509 MHz.

Study of the 1s and 2s shell contributions to the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant in nitrogen
(1988)

The istropic part of the hyperfine coupling constant is investigated by means of multireference configuration interaction calculations employing Gaussian basis sets. A detailed study of the 1s and 2s spin polarisation in the nitrogen atom and the NH molecule shows that the structure of the lower-energy space of the unoccupied orbitals is essential for the results. A contraction of the Gaussian basis is possible without loss of accuracy if enough flexibility is retained to describe the main features of the original space of unoccupied functions. Higher than double excitations are found to be non-negligible for the description of α\(_{iso}\).

The isotropic (a\(_{iso}\)) and dipolar (A\(_{dip}\)) hyperfine coupling constants of 19F2 were obtained from MRD-CI wave functions using a variety of basis sets. In series I, increasing numbers of d functions were added to a 5s4p contracted Huzinaga!Dunning basis. In series II, the 5s3p basis set was uncontracted in several steps until 9s5p was reached, to which were added from one to three d-polarization functions. Cl parameters (selectioo threshoids and the number of reference coofiguratioos) were also varied. A study of the R dependence of aiso and Adip was perfonned. The best values obtained at R\(_e\) are 260 G for a\(_{iso}\) and 308 G for A\(_{dip}\)• compared with experimental values of about 280 G for a;10 and 320 G for A\(_{dip}\)·