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The main theme of this thesis is the development of multigrid and hierarchical matrix solution procedures with almost linear computational complexity for classes of partial integro-differential problems. An elliptic partial integro-differential equation, a convection-diffusion partial integro-differential equation and a convection-diffusion partial integro-differential optimality system are investigated. In the first part of this work, an efficient multigrid finite-differences scheme for solving an elliptic
Fredholm partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) is discussed. This scheme combines a second-order accurate finite difference discretization and a Simpson's quadrature rule to approximate the PIDE problem and a multigrid scheme and a fast
multilevel integration method of the Fredholm operator allowing the fast solution of the PIDE problem. Theoretical estimates of second-order accuracy and results of local Fourier analysis of convergence of the proposed multigrid scheme
are presented. Results of numerical experiments validate these estimates and demonstrate optimal computational complexity of the proposed framework that includes numerical experiments for elliptic PIDE problems with singular kernels. The experience gained in this part of the work is used for the investigation of convection diffusion partial-integro differential equations in the second part of this thesis.
Convection-diffusion PIDE problems are discretized using a finite volume scheme referred to as the Chang and Cooper (CC) scheme and a quadrature rule. Also for this class of PIDE problems and this numerical setting, a stability and accuracy analysis of the CC scheme combined with a Simpson's quadrature rule is presented proving second-order accuracy of the numerical solution. To extend and investigate the proposed approximation and solution strategy to the case of systems of convection-diffusion PIDE, an optimal control problem governed by this model is considered. In this case the research focus is the CC-Simpson's discretization of the optimality system and its solution by the proposed multigrid strategy. Second-order accuracy of the optimization solution is proved and results of local Fourier analysis are presented that provide sharp convergence estimates of the optimal computational complexity of the multigrid-fast integration technique.
While (geometric) multigrid techniques require ad-hoc implementation depending on the structure of the PIDE problem and on the dimensionality of the domain where the problem is considered, the hierarchical matrix framework allows a more general treatment that exploits the algebraic structure of the problem at hand. In this thesis, this framework is extended to the case of combined differential and integral problems considering the case of a convection-diffusion PIDE. In this case, the starting point is the CC discretization of the convection-diffusion operator combined with the trapezoidal quadrature rule. The hierarchical matrix approach exploits the algebraic nature of the hierarchical matrices for blockwise approximations by low-rank matrices of the sparse convection-diffusion approximation and enables data sparse representation of the fully populated matrix where all essential matrix operations are performed with at most logarithmic optimal complexity. The factorization of part of or the whole coefficient matrix is used as a preconditioner to the solution of the PIDE problem using a generalized minimum residual (GMRes) procedure as a solver.
Numerical analysis estimates of the accuracy of the
finite-volume and trapezoidal rule approximation are
presented and combined with estimates of the
hierarchical matrix approximation and with the
accuracy of the GMRes iterates. Results of numerical experiments are reported that
successfully validate the theoretical estimates and
the optimal computational complexity of the proposed hierarchical matrix
solution procedure. These results include an extension to higher dimensions and an application to the time evolution of the probability density function of a jump diffusion process.

An efficient multigrid finite-differences scheme for solving elliptic Fredholm partial integro-differential equations (PIDE) is discussed. This scheme combines a second-order accurate finite difference discretization of the PIDE problem with a multigrid scheme that includes a fast multilevel integration of the Fredholm operator allowing the fast solution of the PIDE problem. Theoretical estimates of second-order accuracy and results of local Fourier analysis of convergence of the proposed multigrid scheme are presented. Results of numerical experiments validate these estimates and demonstrate optimal computational complexity of the proposed framework.