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Within gauge/gravity duality, we consider the local quench-like time evolution obtained by joining two 1+1-dimensional heat baths at different temperatures at time \(t\) = 0. A steady state forms and expands in space. For the 2+1-dimensional gravity dual, we find that the “shockwaves” expanding the steady-state region are of spacelike nature in the bulk despite being null at the boundary. However, they do not transport information. Moreover, by adapting the time-dependent Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi prescription, we holographically calculate the entanglement entropy and also the mutual information for different entangling regions. For general temperatures, we find that the entanglement entropy increase rate satisfies the same bound as in the ‘entanglement tsunami’ setups. For small temperatures of the two baths, we derive an analytical formula for the time dependence of the entanglement entropy. This replaces the entanglement tsunami-like behaviour seen for high temperatures. Finally, we check that strong subadditivity holds in this time-dependent system, as well as further more general entanglement inequalities for five or more regions recently derived for the static case.

We consider the computation of volumes contained in a spatial slice of AdS(3) in terms of observables in a dual CFT. Our main tool is kinematic space, defined either from the bulk perspective as the space of oriented bulk geodesics, or from the CFT perspective as the space of entangling intervals. We give an explicit formula for the volume of a general region in a spatial slice of AdS(3) as an integral over kinematic space. For the region lying below a geodesic, we show how to write this volume purely in terms of entangling entropies in the dual CFT. This expression is perhaps most interesting in light of the complexity = volume proposal, which posits that complexity of holographic quantum states is computed by bulk volumes. An extension of this idea proposes that the holographic subregion complexity of an interval, defined as the volume under its Ryu-Takayanagi surface, is a measure of the complexity of the corresponding reduced density matrix. If this is true, our results give an explicit relationship between entanglement and subregion complexity in CFT, at least in the vacuum. We further extend many of our results to conical defect and BTZ black hole geometries.

The modular Hamiltonian of reduced states, given essentially by the logarithm of the reduced density matrix, plays an important role within the AdS/CFT correspondence in view of its relation to quantum information. In particular, it is an essential ingredient for quantum information measures of distances between states, such as the relative entropy and the Fisher information metric. However, the modular Hamiltonian is known explicitly only for a few examples. For a family of states rho(lambda) that is parametrized by a scalar lambda, the first order contribution in (lambda) over tilde = lambda-lambda(0) of the modular Hamiltonian to the relative entropy between rho(lambda) and a reference state rho(lambda 0) is completely determined by the entanglement entropy, via the first law of entanglement. For several examples, e.g. for ball-shaped regions in the ground state of CFTs, higher order contributions are known to vanish. In these cases the modular Hamiltonian contributes to the Fisher information metric in a trivial way. We investigate under which conditions the modular Hamiltonian provides a non-trivial contribution to the Fisher information metric, i.e. when the contribution of the modular Hamiltonian to the relative entropy is of higher order in (lambda) over tilde. We consider one-parameter families of reduced states on two entangling regions that form an entanglement plateau, i.e. the entanglement entropies of the two regions saturate the Araki-Lieb inequality. We show that in general, at least one of the relative entropies of the two entangling regions is expected to involve (lambda) over tilde contributions of higher order from the modular Hamiltonian. Furthermore, we consider the implications of this observation for prominent AdS/CFT examples that form entanglement plateaux in the large N limit.

A current challenge in condensed matter physics is the realization of strongly correlated, viscous electron fluids. These fluids can be described by holography, that is, by mapping them onto a weakly curved gravitational theory via gauge/gravity duality. The canonical system considered for realizations has been graphene. In this work, we show that Kagome systems with electron fillings adjusted to the Dirac nodes provide a much more compelling platform for realizations of viscous electron fluids, including non-linear effects such as turbulence. In particular, we find that in Scandium Herbertsmithite, the fine-structure constant, which measures the effective Coulomb interaction, is enhanced by a factor of about 3.2 as compared to graphene. We employ holography to estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity over the entropy density in Sc-Herbertsmithite, and find it about three times smaller than in graphene. These findings put the turbulent flow regime described by holography within the reach of experiments. Viscous electron fluids are predicted in strongly correlated systems but remain challenging to realize. Here, the authors predict enhanced effective Coulomb interaction and reduced ratio of the shear viscosity over entropy density in a Kagome metal, inferring turbulent flow of viscous electron fluids.

We develop the formalism of holographic renormalization to compute two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model. The model describes a (0 + 1)-dimensional impurity spin of a gauged SU(N ) interacting with a (1 + 1)-dimensional, large-N , strongly-coupled Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We describe the impurity using Abrikosov pseudo-fermions, and define an SU(N )-invariant scalar operator O built from a pseudo-fermion and a CFT fermion. At large N the Kondo interaction is of the form O\(^{†}\)O, which is marginally relevant, and generates a Renormalization Group (RG) flow at the impurity. A second-order mean-field phase transition occurs in which O condenses below a critical temperature, leading to the Kondo effect, including screening of the impurity. Via holography, the phase transition is dual to holographic superconductivity in (1 + 1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. At all temperatures, spectral functions of O exhibit a Fano resonance, characteristic of a continuum of states interacting with an isolated resonance. In contrast to Fano resonances observed for example in quantum dots, our continuum and resonance arise from a (0 + 1)-dimensional UV fixed point and RG flow, respectively. In the low-temperature phase, the resonance comes from a pole in the Green’s function of the form −i〈O〉\(^{2}\), which is characteristic of a Kondo resonance.