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The analysis of real data by means of statistical methods with the aid of a software package common in industry and administration usually is not an integral part of mathematics studies, but it will certainly be part of a future professional work. The present book links up elements from time series analysis with a selection of statistical procedures used in general practice including the statistical software package SAS Statistical Analysis System). Consequently this book addresses students of statistics as well as students of other branches such as economics, demography and engineering, where lectures on statistics belong to their academic training. But it is also intended for the practician who, beyond the use of statistical tools, is interested in their mathematical background. Numerous problems illustrate the applicability of the presented statistical procedures, where SAS gives the solutions. The programs used are explicitly listed and explained. No previous experience is expected neither in SAS nor in a special computer system so that a short training period is guaranteed. This book is meant for a two semester course (lecture, seminar or practical training) where the first two chapters can be dealt with in the first semester. They provide the principal components of the analysis of a time series in the time domain. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 deal with its analysis in the frequency domain and can be worked through in the second term. In order to understand the mathematical background some terms are useful such as convergence in distribution, stochastic convergence, maximum likelihood estimator as well as a basic knowledge of the test theory, so that work on the book can start after an introductory lecture on stochastics. Each chapter includes exercises. An exhaustive treatment is recommended. This book is consecutively subdivided in a statistical part and an SAS-specific part. For better clearness the SAS-specific part, including the diagrams generated with SAS, always starts with a computer symbol, representing the beginning of a session at the computer, and ends with a printer symbol for the end of this session. This book is an open source project under the GNU Free Documentation License.

The ultrastructure of th e growin g and ma turing primary nucleus of Acetabularia medite rranea and Acetabularia major has been studied with the use of various fi xation procedures. Particular interest has been focused on the deta ils of the nuclear periphery and the perinuclear region. It is demonstrated that early in nuclear grow th a characteristic perinucl ear structura l complex is formed which is, among the eukaryotic cells, unique to Acetabularia and re lated genera. This perinuclear system consists essentially of a) the nuclear envelope with a very hi gh pore frequency and various pore complex assoc iat ion s w ith granular and/or threadlike structures some of which are continuous with the nucleolus; b) an approx imate ly 100 nm thick intermediate zone densely filled with a filam entOus material and occasional sma ll membraneous structures from which the typical cytOplasmic and nuclear organe lles and particles are excl ud ed ; c) an adjacent Iacunar labyrinthum which is interrupted by many plasmatic junction channels between the intermed iate zone and the free cytOplasm; d) numerous dense perinuclear bodies in the juxtanuclear cytOplasm which a re especia lly frequent at the junction channels and reveal a composition of aggregated fibrillar and granul ar structures; e) very dense exclusively fibrill ar agg regates which occur either in assoc iation with t he perinuclear region of the lacunar labyrinthum or, somewhat further out, in the cytOplasmic strands between the bra nches of the lacun ar labyrinthum in the form of slender, characteristic rods or "sausages".

Developmental differentiation is a universal biological process that allows cells to adapt to different environments to perform specific functions. African trypanosomes progress through a tightly regulated life cycle in order to survive in different host environments when they shuttle between an insect vector and a vertebrate host. Transcriptomics has been useful to gain insight into RNA changes during stage transitions; however, RNA levels are only a moderate proxy for protein abundance in trypanosomes. We quantified 4270 protein groups during stage differentiation from the mammalian-infective to the insect form and provide classification for their expression profiles during development. Our label-free quantitative proteomics study revealed previously unknown components of the differentiation machinery that are involved in essential biological processes such as signaling, posttranslational protein modifications, trafficking and nuclear transport. Furthermore, guided by our proteomic survey, we identified the cause of the previously observed differentiation impairment in the histone methyltransferase DOT1B knock-out strain as it is required for accurate karyokinesis in the first cell division during differentiation. This epigenetic regulator is likely involved in essential chromatin restructuring during developmental differentiation, which might also be important for differentiation in higher eukaryotic cells. Our proteome dataset will serve as a resource for detailed investigations of cell differentiation to shed more light on the molecular mechanisms of this process in trypanosomes and other eukaryotes.

The fatal neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy are, respectively, the most common motoneuron disease and genetic cause of infant death. Various in vitro model systems have been established to investigate motoneuron disease mechanisms, in particular immortalized cell lines and primary neurons. Using quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics, we compared the proteomes of primary motoneurons to motoneuron-like cell lines NSC-34 and N2a, as well as to non-neuronal control cells, at a depth of 10,000 proteins. We used this resource to evaluate the suitability of murine in vitro model systems for cell biological and biochemical analysis of motoneuron disease mechanisms. Individual protein and pathway analysis indicated substantial differences between motoneuron-like cell lines and primary motoneurons, especially for proteins involved in differentiation, cytoskeleton, and receptor signaling, whereas common metabolic pathways were more similar. The proteins associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also showed distinct differences between cell lines and primary motoneurons, providing a molecular basis for understanding fundamental alterations between cell lines and neurons with respect to neuronal pathways with relevance for disease mechanisms. Our study provides a proteomics resource for motoneuron research and presents a paradigm of how mass-spectrometry-based proteomics can be used to evaluate disease model systems.

The analysis of real data by means of statistical methods with the aid of a software package common in industry and administration usually is not an integral part of mathematics studies, but it will certainly be part of a future professional work. The present book links up elements from time series analysis with a selection of statistical procedures used in general practice including the statistical software package SAS. Consequently this book addresses students of statistics as well as students of other branches such as economics, demography and engineering, where lectures on statistics belong to their academic training. But it is also intended for the practician who, beyond the use of statistical tools, is interested in their mathematical background. Numerous problems illustrate the applicability of the presented statistical procedures, where SAS gives the solutions. The programs used are explicitly listed and explained. No previous experience is expected neither in SAS nor in a special computer system so that a short training period is guaranteed. This book is meant for a two semester course (lecture, seminar or practical training) where the first three chapters can be dealt within the first semester. They provide the principal components of the analysis of a time series in the time domain. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 deal with its analysis in the frequency domain and can be worked through in the second term. In order to understand the mathematical background some terms are useful such as convergence in distribution, stochastic convergence, maximum likelihood estimator as well as a basic knowledge of the test theory, so that work on the book can start after an introductory lecture on stochastics. Each chapter includes exercises. An exhaustive treatment is recommended. Chapter 7 (case study) deals with a practical case and demonstrates the presented methods. It is possible to use this chapter independent in a seminar or practical training course, if the concepts of time series analysis are already well understood. This book is consecutively subdivided in a statistical part and an SAS-specific part. For better clearness the SAS-specific parts are highlighted. This book is an open source project under the GNU Free Documentation License.

It is shown that the rate of convergence in the von Mises conditions of extreme value theory determines the distance of the underlying distribution function F from a generalized Pareto distribution. The distance is measured in terms of the pertaining densities with the limit being ultimately attained if and only if F is ultimately a generalized Pareto distribution. Consequently, the rate of convergence of the extremes in an lid sample, whether in terms of the distribution of the largest order statistics or of corresponding empirical truncated point processes, is determined by the rate of convergence in the von Mises condition. We prove that the converse is also true.