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In this letter we study the influence of temperature and excitation power on the emission linewidth from site-controlled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots grown on nanoholes defined by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching. We identify thermal electron activation as well as direct exciton loss as the dominant intensity quenching channels. Additionally, we carefully analyze the effects of optical and acoustic phonons as well as close-by defects on the emission linewidth by means of temperature and power dependent micro-photoluminescence on single quantum dots with large pitches. (C) 2014 Author(s).

Microcavity exciton polaritons are promising candidates to build a new generation of highly nonlinear and integrated optoelectronic devices. Such devices range from novel coherent light emitters to reconfigurable potential landscapes for electro-optical polariton-lattice based quantum simulators as well as building blocks of optical logic architectures. Especially for the latter, the strongly interacting nature of the light-matter hybrid particles has been used to facilitate fast and efficient switching of light by light, something which is very hard to achieve with weakly interacting photons. We demonstrate here that polariton transistor switches can be fully integrated in electro-optical schemes by implementing a one-dimensional polariton channel which is operated by an electrical gate rather than by a control laser beam. The operation of the device, which is the polariton equivalent to a field-effect transistor, relies on combining electro-optical potential landscape engineering with local exciton ionization to control the scattering dynamics underneath the gate. We furthermore demonstrate that our device has a region of negative differential resistance and features a completely new way to create bistable behavior.

Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator's optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations--photons, phonons and electrons--can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge.

We report on electrically pumped quantum dot-microlasers in the presence of polarized self-feedback. The high-\(\beta\) microlasers show two orthogonal, linearly polarized emission modes which are coupled via the common gain medium. This coupling is explained in terms of gain competition between the two lasing modes and leads to distinct differences in their input-output characteristics. By applying polarized self-feedback via an external mirror, we are able to control the laser characteristics of the emission modes in terms of the output power, the coherence time and the photon statistics. We find that linearly polarized self-feedback stabilizes the lasing of a given mode, while cross-polarized feedback between the two modes reduces strongly the intensity of the other emission mode showing particular high-intensity fluctuations and even super-thermal values of the photon autocorrelation function \(g^{(2)} (\tau)\) at zero delay. Measurements of \(g^{(2)} (\tau)\) under external feedback also allow us to detect revival peaks associated with the round trip time of the external cavity. Analyzing the damping and shape of the \(g^{(2)} (\tau)\) revival peaks by a phenomenological model provides us insight into the underlying physics such as the effective exciton lifetime and gain characteristics of the quantum dots in the active region of these microlasers.

Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles—exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.

Bloch oscillations are a phenomenon well known from quantum mechanics where electrons in a lattice experience an oscillatory motion in the presence of an electric field gradient. Here, the authors report on Bloch oscillations of hybrid light−matter particles, called exciton‐polaritons (polaritons), being confined in an array of coupled microcavity waveguides. To this end, the waveguide widths and their mutual couplings are carefully designed such that a constant energy gradient is induced perpendicular to the direction of motion of the propagating polaritons. This technique allows us to directly observe and study Bloch oscillations in real‐ and momentum‐space. Furthermore, the experimental findings are supported by numerical simulations based on a modified Gross–Pitaevskii approach. This work provides an important transfer of basic concepts of quantum mechanics to integrated solid state devices, using quantum fluids of light.

In this work we present an extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of different regimes of strong field light–matter interaction for cavity-driven quantum dot (QD) cavity systems. The electric field enhancement inside a high-Q micropillar cavity facilitates exceptionally strong interaction with few cavity photons, enabling the simultaneous investigation for a wide range of QD-laser detuning. In case of a resonant drive, the formation of dressed states and a Mollow triplet sideband splitting of up to 45 μeV is measured for amean cavity photon number <n\(_c\)>\(\leq\) 1. In the asymptotic limit of the linear ACStark effect we systematically investigate the power and detuning dependence of more than 400 QDs. Some QD-cavity systems exhibit an unexpected anomalous Stark shift, which can be explained by an extended dressed 4-levelQDmodel.Weprovide a detailed analysis of the QD-cavity systems properties enabling this novel effect. The experimental results are successfully reproduced using a polaron master equation approach for the QD-cavity system, which includes the driving laser field, exciton-cavity and exciton-phonon interactions

We investigate the dispersion properties of ridge Bragg-reflection waveguides to deduce their phasematching characteristics. These are crucial for exploiting them as sources of parametric down-conversion (PDC). In order to estimate the phasematching bandwidth we first determine the group refractive indices of the interacting modes via Fabry-Perot experiments in two distant wavelength regions. Second, by measuring the spectra of the emitted PDC photons, we gain access to their group index dispersion. Our results offer a simple approach for determining the PDC process parameters in the spectral domain, and provide important feedback for designing such sources, especially in the broadband case.

Interaction between light and matter generates optical nonlinearities, which are particularly pronounced in the quantum strong coupling regime. When a single bosonic mode couples to a single fermionic mode, a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) ladder is formed, which we realize here using cavity photons and quantum dot excitons. We measure and model the coherent anharmonic response of this strongly coupled exciton-cavity system at resonance. Injecting two photons into the cavity, we demonstrate a \(\sqrt 2\) larger polariton splitting with respect to the vacuum Rabi splitting. This is achieved using coherent nonlinear spectroscopy, specifically four-wave mixing, where the coherence between the ground state and the first (second) rung of the JC ladder can be interrogated for positive (negative) delays. With increasing excitation intensity and thus rising average number of injected photons, we observe spectral signatures of the quantum-to-classical crossover of the strong coupling regime.

Dirac particles, massless relativistic entities, obey linear energy dispersions and hold important implications in particle physics. The recent discovery of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems including graphene and topological insulators has generated a great deal of interest in exploring the relativistic properties associated with Dirac physics in solid-state materials. In addition, there are stimulating research activities to engineer Dirac particles, elucidating their exotic physical properties in a controllable setting. One of the successful platforms is the ultracold atom-optical lattice system, whose dynamics can be manipulated and probed in a clean environment. A microcavity exciton-polariton-lattice system offers the advantage of forming high-orbital condensation in non-equilibrium conditions, which enables one to explore novel quantum orbital order in two dimensions. In this paper, we experimentally construct the band structures near Dirac points, the vertices of the first hexagonal Brillouin zone with exciton-polariton condensates trapped in a triangular lattice. Due to the finite spectral linewidth, the direct map of band structures at Dirac points is elusive; however, we identify the linear part above Dirac points and its associated velocity value is similar to ~0.9-2 x \(10^8 cm s^{-1}\), consistent with the theoretical estimate \(1 x 10^8 cm s^{-1}\) with a \(2 \mu m\) lattice constant. We envision that the exciton-polariton condensates in lattices would be a promising solid-state platform, where the system order parameter can be accessed in both real and momentum spaces.