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This thesis is concerned with applying the total variation (TV) regularizer to surfaces and different types of shape optimization problems. The resulting problems are challenging since they suffer from the non-differentiability of the TV-seminorm, but unlike most other priors it favors piecewise constant solutions, which results in piecewise flat geometries for shape optimization problems.The first part of this thesis deals with an analogue of the TV image reconstruction approach [Rudin, Osher, Fatemi (Physica D, 1992)] for images on smooth surfaces. A rigorous analytical framework is developed for this model and its Fenchel predual, which is a quadratic optimization problem with pointwise inequality constraints on the surface. A function space interior point method is proposed to solve it. Afterwards, a discrete variant (DTV) based on a nodal quadrature formula is defined for piecewise polynomial, globally discontinuous and continuous finite element functions on triangulated surface meshes. DTV has favorable properties, which include a convenient dual representation. Next, an analogue of the total variation prior for the normal vector field along the boundary of smooth shapes in 3D is introduced. Its analysis is based on a differential geometric setting in which the unit normal vector is viewed as an element of the two-dimensional sphere manifold. Shape calculus is used to characterize the relevant derivatives and an variant of the split Bregman method for manifold valued functions is proposed. This is followed by an extension of the total variation prior for the normal vector field for piecewise flat surfaces and the previous variant of split Bregman method is adapted. Numerical experiments confirm that the new prior favours polyhedral shapes.

This thesis considers a model of a scalar partial differential equation in the presence of a singular source term, modeling the interaction between an inviscid fluid represented by the Burgers equation and an arbitrary, finite amount of particles moving inside the fluid, each one acting as a point-wise drag force with a particle related friction constant.
\begin{align*}
\partial_t u + \partial_x (u^2/2) &= \sum_{i \in N(t)} \lambda_i \Big(h_i'(t)-u(t,h_i(t)\Big)\delta(x-h_i(t))
\end{align*}
The model was introduced for the case of a single particle by Lagoutière, Seguin and Takahashi, is a first step towards a better understanding of interaction between fluids and solids on the level of partial differential equations and has the unique property of considering entropy admissible solutions and the interaction with shockwaves.
The model is extended to an arbitrary, finite number of particles and interactions like merging, splitting and crossing of particle paths are considered.
The theory of entropy admissibility is revisited for the cases of interfaces and discontinuous flux conservation laws, existing results are summarized and compared, and adapted for regions of particle interactions. To this goal, the theory of germs introduced by Andreianov, Karlsen and Risebro is extended to this case of non-conservative interface coupling.
Exact solutions for the Riemann Problem of particles drifting apart are computed and analysis on the behavior of entropy solutions across the particle related interfaces is used to determine physically relevant and consistent behavior for merging and splitting of particles. Well-posedness of entropy solutions to the Cauchy problem is proven, using an explicit construction method, L-infinity bounds, an approximation of the particle paths and compactness arguments to obtain existence of entropy solutions. Uniqueness is shown in the class of weak entropy solutions using almost classical Kruzkov-type analysis and the notion of L1-dissipative germs.
Necessary fundamentals of hyperbolic conservation laws, including weak solutions, shocks and rarefaction waves and the Rankine-Hugoniot condition are briefly recapitulated.

The present thesis considers the modelling of gas mixtures via a kinetic description. Fundamentals about the Boltzmann equation for gas mixtures and the BGK approximation are presented. Especially, issues in extending these models to gas mixtures are discussed. A non-reactive two component gas mixture is considered. The two species mixture is modelled by a system of kinetic BGK equations featuring two interaction terms to account for momentum and energy transfer between the two species. The model presented here contains several models from physicists and engineers as special cases. Consistency of this model is proven: conservation properties, positivity of all temperatures and the H-theorem. The form in global equilibrium as Maxwell distributions is specified. Moreover, the usual macroscopic conservation laws can be derived.
In the literature, there is another type of BGK model for gas mixtures developed by Andries, Aoki and Perthame, which contains only one interaction term. In this thesis, the advantages of these two types of models are discussed and the usefulness of the model presented here is shown by using this model to determine an unknown function in the energy exchange of the macroscopic equations for gas mixtures described in the literature by Dellacherie. In addition, for each of the two models existence and uniqueness of mild solutions is shown. Moreover, positivity of classical solutions is proven.
Then, the model presented here is applied to three physical applications: a plasma consisting of ions and electrons, a gas mixture which deviates from equilibrium and a gas mixture consisting of polyatomic molecules.
First, the model is extended to a model for charged particles. Then, the equations of magnetohydrodynamics are derived from this model. Next, we want to apply this extended model to a mixture of ions and electrons in a special physical constellation which can be found for example in a Tokamak. The mixture is partly in equilibrium in some regions, in some regions it deviates from equilibrium. The model presented in this thesis is taken for this purpose, since it has the advantage to separate the intra and interspecies interactions. Then, a new model based on a micro-macro decomposition is proposed in order to capture the physical regime of being partly in equilibrium, partly not. Theoretical results are presented, convergence rates to equilibrium in the space-homogeneous case and the Landau damping for mixtures, in order to compare it with numerical results.
Second, the model presented here is applied to a gas mixture which deviates from equilibrium such that it is described by Navier-Stokes equations on the macroscopic level. In this macroscopic description it is expected that four physical coefficients will show up, characterizing the physical behaviour of the gases, namely the diffusion coefficient, the viscosity coefficient, the heat conductivity and the thermal diffusion parameter. A Chapman-Enskog expansion of the model presented here is performed in order to capture three of these four physical coefficients. In addition, several possible extensions to an ellipsoidal statistical model for gas mixtures are proposed in order to capture the fourth coefficient. Three extensions are proposed: An extension which is as simple as possible, an intuitive extension copying the one species case and an extension which takes into account the physical motivation of the physicist Holway who invented the ellipsoidal statistical model for one species. Consistency of the extended models like conservation properties, positivity of all temperatures and the H-theorem are proven. The shape of global Maxwell distributions in equilibrium are specified.
Third, the model presented here is applied to polyatomic molecules. A multi component gas mixture with translational and internal energy degrees of freedom is considered. The two species are allowed to have different degrees of freedom in internal energy and are modelled by a system of kinetic ellipsoidal statistical equations. Consistency of this model is shown: conservation properties, positivity of the temperature, H-theorem and the form of Maxwell distributions in equilibrium. For numerical purposes the Chu reduction is applied to the developed model for polyatomic gases to reduce the complexity of the model and an application for a gas consisting of a mono-atomic and a diatomic gas is given.
Last, the limit from the model presented here to the dissipative Euler equations for gas mixtures is proven.

This work is concerned with the numerical approximation of solutions to models that are used to describe atmospheric or oceanographic flows. In particular, this work concen- trates on the approximation of the Shallow Water equations with bottom topography and the compressible Euler equations with a gravitational potential. Numerous methods have been developed to approximate solutions of these models. Of specific interest here are the approximations of near equilibrium solutions and, in the case of the Euler equations, the low Mach number flow regime. It is inherent in most of the numerical methods that the quality of the approximation increases with the number of degrees of freedom that are used. Therefore, these schemes are often run in parallel on big computers to achieve the best pos- sible approximation. However, even on those big machines, the desired accuracy can not be achieved by the given maximal number of degrees of freedom that these machines allow. The main focus in this work therefore lies in the development of numerical schemes that give better resolution of the resulting dynamics on the same number of degrees of freedom, compared to classical schemes.
This work is the result of a cooperation of Prof. Klingenberg of the Institute of Mathe- matics in Wu¨rzburg and Prof. R¨opke of the Astrophysical Institute in Wu¨rzburg. The aim of this collaboration is the development of methods to compute stellar atmospheres. Two main challenges are tackled in this work. First, the accurate treatment of source terms in the numerical scheme. This leads to the so called well-balanced schemes. They allow for an accurate approximation of near equilibrium dynamics. The second challenge is the approx- imation of flows in the low Mach number regime. It is known that the compressible Euler equations tend towards the incompressible Euler equations when the Mach number tends to zero. Classical schemes often show excessive diffusion in that flow regime. The here devel- oped scheme falls into the category of an asymptotic preserving scheme, i.e. the numerical scheme reflects the behavior that is computed on the continuous equations. Moreover, it is shown that the diffusion of the numerical scheme is independent of the Mach number.
In chapter 3, an HLL-type approximate Riemann solver is adapted for simulations of the Shallow Water equations with bottom topography to develop a well-balanced scheme. In the literature, most schemes only tackle the equilibria when the fluid is at rest, the so called Lake at rest solutions. Here a scheme is developed to accurately capture all the equilibria of the Shallow Water equations. Moreover, in contrast to other works, a second order extension is proposed, that does not rely on an iterative scheme inside the reconstruction procedure, leading to a more efficient scheme.
In chapter 4, a Suliciu relaxation scheme is adapted for the resolution of hydrostatic equilibria of the Euler equations with a gravitational potential. The hydrostatic relations are underdetermined and therefore the solutions to that equations are not unique. However, the scheme is shown to be well-balanced for a wide class of hydrostatic equilibria. For specific classes, some quadrature rules are computed to ensure the exact well-balanced property. Moreover, the scheme is shown to be robust, i.e. it preserves the positivity of mass and energy, and stable with respect to the entropy. Numerical results are presented in order to investigate the impact of the different quadrature rules on the well-balanced property.
In chapter 5, a Suliciu relaxation scheme is adapted for the simulations of low Mach number flows. The scheme is shown to be asymptotic preserving and not suffering from excessive diffusion in the low Mach number regime. Moreover, it is shown to be robust under certain parameter combinations and to be stable from an Chapman-Enskog analysis.
Numerical results are presented in order to show the advantages of the new approach.
In chapter 6, the schemes developed in the chapters 4 and 5 are combined in order to investigate the performance of the numerical scheme in the low Mach number regime in a gravitational stratified atmosphere. The scheme is shown the be well-balanced, robust and stable with respect to a Chapman-Enskog analysis. Numerical tests are presented to show the advantage of the newly proposed method over the classical scheme.
In chapter 7, some remarks on an alternative way to tackle multidimensional simulations are presented. However no numerical simulations are performed and it is shown why further research on the suggested approach is necessary.

Finite volume methods for compressible Euler equations suffer from an excessive diffusion in the limit of low Mach numbers. This PhD thesis explores new approaches to overcome this.
The analysis of a simpler set of equations that also possess a low Mach number limit is found to give valuable insights. These equations are the acoustic equations obtained as a linearization of the Euler equations. For both systems the limit is characterized by a divergencefree velocity. This constraint is nontrivial only in multiple spatial dimensions. As the Jacobians of the acoustic system do not commute, acoustics cannot be reduced to some kind of multi-dimensional advection. Therefore first an exact solution in multiple spatial dimensions is obtained. It is shown that the low Mach number limit can be interpreted as a limit of long times.
It is found that the origin of the inability of a scheme to resolve the low Mach number limit is the lack a discrete counterpart to the limit of long times. Numerical schemes whose discrete stationary states discretize all the analytic stationary states of the PDE are called stationarity preserving. It is shown that for the acoustic equations, stationarity preserving schemes are vorticity preserving and are those that are able to resolve the low Mach limit (low Mach compliant). This establishes a new link between these three concepts.
Stationarity preservation is studied in detail for both dimensionally split and multi-dimensional schemes for linear acoustics. In particular it is explained why the same multi-dimensional stencils appear in literature in very different contexts: These stencils are unique discretizations of the divergence that allow for stabilizing stationarity preserving diffusion.
Stationarity preservation can also be generalized to nonlinear systems such as the Euler equations. Several ways how such numerical schemes can be constructed for the Euler equations are presented. In particular a low Mach compliant numerical scheme is derived that uses a novel construction idea. Its diffusion is chosen such that it depends on the velocity divergence rather than just derivatives of the different velocity components. This is demonstrated to overcome the low Mach number problem. The scheme shows satisfactory results in numerical simulations and has been found to be stable under explicit time integration.

The present thesis considers the development and analysis of arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian
discontinuous Galerkin (ALE-DG) methods with time-dependent approximation spaces for
conservation laws and the Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Fundamentals about conservation laws, Hamilton-Jacobi equations and discontinuous Galerkin
methods are presented. In particular, issues in the development of discontinuous Galerkin (DG)
methods for the Hamilton-Jacobi equations are discussed.
The development of the ALE-DG methods based on the assumption that the distribution of
the grid points is explicitly given for an upcoming time level. This assumption allows to construct a time-dependent local affine linear mapping to a reference cell and a time-dependent
finite element test function space. In addition, a version of Reynolds’ transport theorem can be
proven.
For the fully-discrete ALE-DG method for nonlinear scalar conservation laws the geometric
conservation law and a local maximum principle are proven. Furthermore, conditions for slope
limiters are stated. These conditions ensure the total variation stability of the method. In addition, entropy stability is discussed. For the corresponding semi-discrete ALE-DG method,
error estimates are proven. If a piecewise $\mathcal{P}^{k}$ polynomial approximation space is used on the reference cell, the sub-optimal $\left(k+\frac{1}{2}\right)$ convergence for monotone fuxes and the optimal $(k+1)$ convergence for an upwind flux are proven in the $\mathrm{L}^{2}$-norm. The capability of the method is shown by numerical examples for nonlinear conservation laws.
Likewise, for the semi-discrete ALE-DG method for nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations, error
estimates are proven. In the one dimensional case the optimal $\left(k+1\right)$ convergence and in the two dimensional case the sub-optimal $\left(k+\frac{1}{2}\right)$ convergence are proven in the $\mathrm{L}^{2}$-norm, if a piecewise $\mathcal{P}^{k}$ polynomial approximation space is used on the reference cell. For the fullydiscrete method, the geometric conservation is proven and for the piecewise constant forward Euler step the convergence of the method to the unique physical relevant solution is discussed.

An explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method is used to device numerical schemes for both the compressible Euler equations of gas dynamics and the ideal magneto- hydrodynamical (MHD) model. These systems of conservation laws are known to have discontinuous solutions. Discontinuities are the source of spurious oscillations in the solution profile of the numerical approximation, when a high order accurate numerical method is used. Different techniques are reviewed in order to control spurious oscillations. A shock detection technique is shown to be useful in order to determine the regions where the spurious oscillations appear such that a Limiter can be used to eliminate these numeric artifacts. To guarantee the positivity of specific variables like the density and the pressure, a positivity preserving limiter is used. Furthermore, a numerical flux, proven to preserve the entropy stability of the semi-discrete DG scheme for the MHD system is used. Finally, the numerical schemes are implemented using the deal.II C++ libraries in the dflo code. The solution of common test cases show the capability of the method.

Fluids in Gravitational Fields – Well-Balanced Modifications for Astrophysical Finite-Volume Codes
(2021)

Stellar structure can -- in good approximation -- be described as a hydrostatic state, which which arises due to a balance between gravitational force and pressure gradient. Hydrostatic states are static solutions of the full compressible Euler system with gravitational source term, which can be used to model the stellar interior. In order to carry out simulations of dynamical processes occurring in stars, it is vital for the numerical method to accurately maintain the hydrostatic state over a long time period. In this thesis we present different methods to modify astrophysical finite volume codes in order to make them \emph{well-balanced}, preventing them from introducing significant discretization errors close to hydrostatic states. Our well-balanced modifications are constructed so that they can meet the requirements for methods applied in the astrophysical context: They can well-balance arbitrary hydrostatic states with any equation of state that is applied to model thermodynamical relations and they are simple to implement in existing astrophysical finite volume codes. One of our well-balanced modifications follows given solutions exactly and can be applied on any grid geometry. The other methods we introduce, which do no require any a priori knowledge, balance local high order approximations of arbitrary hydrostatic states on a Cartesian grid. All of our modifications allow for high order accuracy of the method. The improved accuracy close to hydrostatic states is verified in various numerical experiments.

We consider a multi-species gas mixture described by a kinetic model. More precisely, we are interested in models with BGK interaction operators. Several extensions to the standard BGK model are studied.
Firstly, we allow the collision frequency to vary not only in time and space but also with the microscopic velocity. In the standard BGK model, the dependence on the microscopic velocity is neglected for reasons of simplicity. We allow for a more physical description by reintroducing this dependence. But even though the structure of the equations remains the same, the so-called target functions in the relaxation term become more sophisticated being defined by a variational procedure.
Secondly, we include quantum effects (for constant collision frequencies). This approach influences again the resulting target functions in the relaxation term depending on the respective type of quantum particles.
In this thesis, we present a numerical method for simulating such models. We use implicit-explicit time discretizations in order to take care of the stiff relaxation part due to possibly large collision frequencies. The key new ingredient is an implicit solver which minimizes a certain potential function. This procedure mimics the theoretical derivation in the models. We prove that theoretical properties of the model are preserved at the discrete level such as conservation of mass, total momentum and total energy, positivity of distribution functions and a proper entropy behavior. We provide an array of numerical tests illustrating the numerical scheme as well as its usefulness and effectiveness.

In this thesis, we are interested in numerically preserving stationary solutions of balance laws. We start by developing finite volume well-balanced schemes for the system of Euler equations and the system of MHD equations with gravitational source term. Since fluid models and kinetic models are related, this leads us to investigate AP schemes for kinetic equations and their ability to preserve stationary solutions. Kinetic models typically have a stiff term, thus AP schemes are needed to capture good solutions of the model. For such kinetic models, equilibrium solutions are reached after large time. Thus we need a new technique to numerically preserve stationary solutions for AP schemes. We find a criterion for SP schemes for kinetic equations which states, that AP schemes under a particular discretization are also SP. In an attempt to mimic our result for kinetic equations in the context of fluid models, for the isentropic Euler equations we developed an AP scheme in the limit of the Mach number going to zero. Our AP scheme is proven to have a SP property under the condition that the pressure is a function of the density and the latter is obtained as a solution of an elliptic equation. The properties of the schemes we developed and its criteria are validated numerically by various test cases from the literature.