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In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die strukturellen und magnetischen Eigenschaften verschiedener 3d-Übergangsmetalloxidketten (TMO-Ketten) auf Ir(001) und Pt(001) untersucht. Diese weisen eine (3 × 1) Struktur mit periodisch angeordneten Ketten auf, die nur über die Sauerstoffbindung an das Substrat gekoppelt sind. Während die Struktur durch experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchungen bestätigt ist, liegen für die magnetischen Eigenschaften ausschließlich Rechnungen vor. Zur Überprüfung dieser theoretischen Vorhersagen wird die Methode der spinpolarisierten Rastertunnelmikroskopie (SP-STM) verwendet, die die Abbildung der magnetischen Ordnung mit atomarer Auflösung erlaubt.
Die Untersuchungen beginnen mit der Vorstellung der Ir(001) Oberfläche, die eine (5 × 1) Rekonstruktion aufweist. Eine Aufhebung dieser Rekonstruktion erreicht man durch das Heizen des Ir-Substrats in Sauerstoffatmosphäre unter Bildung einer (2 × 1) Sauerstoffrekonstruktion. Die Qualität der Oberfläche hängt dabei von der Wachstumstemperatur T und dem verwendeten Sauerstoffdruck pOx ab. Die bei T = 550°C und pOx = 1 × 10^−8 mbar hergestellte Sauerstoffrektonstruktion dient als Ausgangspunkt für die folgenden Präparationen von CoO2, FeO2 und MnO2-Ketten. Dazu wird jeweils eine drittel Monolage (ML) des Übergangsmetalls auf die Oberfläche des Substrates gedampft und die Probe unter Sauerstoffatmosphäre ein weiteres Mal geheizt. Auf diese Weise kann die (3 × 1) Struktur der bekannten Ketten bestätigt und die Gruppe der TMO-Ketten um die CrO2-Ketten erweitert werden.
In der einschlägigen Fachliteratur wurden Vorhersagen bezüglich der magnetischen Struktur der TMO-Ketten publiziert, wonach entlang und zwischen CoO2-Ketten eine ferromagnetische (FM) und für FeO2 und MnO2-Ketten eine antiferromagnetische (AFM-) Kopplung vorliegt.Während die Überprüfung dieser Vorhersagen mit SP-STM für CoO2 und CrO2-Ketten keine Hinweise auf magnetische Strukturen liefert, liegen bei FeO2 und MnO2-Ketten unterschiedliche magnetische Phasen vor. In der Tat kann
mit den experimentell gefundenen Einheitszellen die AFM-Kopplung entlang beider Ketten bestätigt werden. Im Gegensatz widersprechen die Kopplungen zwischen den Ketten den Berechnungen. Bei FeO2-Ketten liegt eine stabile FM Ordnung vor, die zu einer magnetischen (3 × 2) Einheitszelle mit einer leichten Magnetisierung in Richtung der Oberflächennormalen führt (out-of-plane). Die MnO2-Ketten weichen ebenfalls von der berechneten magnetischen kollinearen Ordnung zwischen benachbarten Ketten ab und zeigen eine chirale Struktur. Durch die Rotation der Mn-Spins um 120° in der Probenebenen (in-plane) entsteht eine magnetische (9 × 2) Einheitszelle, deren Periode durch neue DFT-Rechnungen bestätigt wird. Nach diesen Berechnungen handelt es sich um eine Spinspirale, die durch die Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM-) Wechselwirkung bei einem Energiegewinn von 0,3 meV pro Mn-Atom gegenüber den kollinearen FM Zustand stabilisiert wird. Diese wird ähnlich wie bei bereits publizierten Clustern und Adatomen auf Pt(111) durch die Rudermann-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY-) Wechselwirkung vermittelt und erklärt den experimentell gefundenen einheitlichen Drehsinn der Spiralen.
Die RKKY-Wechselwirkung zeigt eine starke Abhängigkeit von der Fermi-Oberfläche des Substrats. Im folgenden Kapitel werden deshalb mit TMO-Ketten auf Pt(001) die strukturellen und magnetischen Eigenschaften auf einem weiteren Substrat analysiert, wobei zum Zeitpunkt der Arbeit nur die Existenz der CoO2-Ketten aus der Literatur bekannt war. Vergleichbar mit Ir(001) besitzt auch Pt(001) eine rekonstruierte Oberfläche, die sich aber stabil gegenüber Oxidation zeigt. Dadurch muss die drittel ML des Übergangsmetalls direkt auf die Rekonstruktion aufgedampft werden. Das Wachstum des Übergangsmetalls ist dabei von der Temperatur des Substrats abhängig und beeinflusst
das Ergebnis der nachfolgenden Oxidation. Diese erfolgt analog zum Wachstum der Ketten auf Ir(001) durch das Heizen der Probe in Sauerstoffatmosphäre und resultiert nur für das Aufdampfen des Übergangsmetalls auf kalte Pt(001) Oberflächen in Ketten mit der Periode von 3aPt. Auf diese Weise kann nicht nur die (3 × 1) Struktur der CoO2-Ketten bestätigt werden, sondern auch durch atomare Auflösung die Gruppe der TMO-Ketten um MnO2-Ketten auf Pt(001) erweitert werden. Im Gegensatz dazu sind die nicht magnetischen Messungen im Fall von Fe nicht eindeutig. Zwar liegen
auch hier Ketten im Abstand des dreifachen Pt Gittervektors vor, trotzdem ist die (3 × 1) Struktur nicht nachweisbar. Dies liegt an einer Korrugation mit einer Periode von 2aPt entlang der Ketten, was ein Hinweis auf eine Peierls Instabilität sein kann.
Entsprechend dem Vorgehen für Ir(001) werden für die TMO-Ketten auf Pt(001) SP-STM Messungen durchgeführt und die Vorhersage einer AFM-Kopplung für CoO2-Ketten überprüft. Auch hier können, wie im Fall von CoO2-Ketten und im Widerspruch zur Vorhersage, für beide Polarisationsrichtungen der Spitze keine magnetischen Strukturen gefunden werden. Darüber hinaus verhalten sich die MnO2-Ketten auf Pt(001) mit ihrer chiralen magnetischen Struktur ähnlich zu denen auf Ir(001). Dies bestätigt die Annahme einer indirekten DM-Wechselwirkung, wobei durch die 72° Rotation der Mn-Spins eine längere Periode der zykloidalen Spinspirale festgestellt wird. Die Erklärung dafür liegt in der Abhängigkeit der RKKY-Wechselwirkung vom Fermi-Wellenvektor des Substrats, während sich die DM-Wechselwirkung beim Übergang von Ir zu Pt nur wenig ändert.

Numerical Simulations of Heavy Fermion Systems: From He-3 Bilayers to Topological Kondo Insulators
(2014)

Even though heavy fermion systems have been studied for a long time, a strong interest in heavy fermions persists to this day. While the basic principles of local moment formation, Kondo effect and formation of composite quasiparticles leading to a Fermi liquid, are under- stood, there remain many interesting open questions. A number of issues arise due to the interplay of heavy fermion physics with other phenomena like magnetism and superconduc- tivity.
In this regard, experimental and theoretical investigations of He-3 can provide valuable insights. He-3 represents a unique realization of a quantum liquid. The fermionic nature of He-3 atoms, in conjunction with the absence of long-range Coulomb repulsion, makes this material an ideal model system to study Fermi liquid behavior.
Bulk He-3 has been investigated for quite some time. More recently, it became possible to prepare and study layered He-3 systems, in particular single layers and bilayers. The pos- sibility of tuning various physical properties of the system by changing the density of He-3 and using different substrate materials makes layers of He-3 an ideal quantum simulator for investigating two-dimensional Fermi liquid phenomenology.
In particular, bilayers of He-3 have recently been found to exhibit heavy fermion behavior. As a function of temperature, a crossover from an incoherent state with decoupled layers to a coherent Fermi liquid of composite quasiparticles was observed. This behavior has its roots in the hybridization of the two layers. The first is almost completely filled and subject to strong correlation effects, while the second layer is only partially filled and weakly correlated. The quasiparticles are formed due to the Kondo screening of localized moments in the first layer by the second-layer delocalized fermions, which takes place at a characteristic temperature scale, the coherence scale Tcoh.
Tcoh can be tuned by changing the He-3 density. In particular, at a certain critical filling,
the coherence scale is expected to vanish, corresponding to a divergence of the quasiparticle effective mass, and a breakdown of the Kondo effect at a quantum critical point. Beyond the critical point, the layers are decoupled. The first layer is a local moment magnet, while the second layer is an itinerant overlayer.
However, already at a filling smaller than the critical value, preempting the critical point, the onset of a finite sample magnetization was observed. The character of this intervening phase remained unclear.
Motivated by these experimental observations, in this thesis the results of model calcula- tions based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. It leads to an effective ferromagnetic interaction between spins on neighboring sites. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion.
By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential µ and inverse temperature β = 1/T . The method is a cluster extension to the Dy- namical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correla- tions beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green’s function and other observables of interest.
As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. Both observations serve as fingerprints of the Fermi liquid state.
The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale Tcoh. This scale depends strongly on the density. While it is rather high for small filling, for larger filling Tcoh is increas- ingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z ∼ Tcoh and an enhanced mass renormalization m∗/m ∼ Tcoh−1. Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the co-
herence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers.
Taking only single-site DMFT results into account, the above scenario seems plausible. However, paramagnetic DMFT neglects the ring exchange interaction completely. In or- der to improve on this, Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size Nc = 2 and 3. The results paint a different physical picture. The ring exchange, by favor- ing a ferromagnetic alignment of spins, competes with the Kondo screening. As a result, strong short-range ferromagnetic fluctuations appear at larger values of µ. By lowering the temperature, these fluctuations are enhanced at first. However, for T < Tcoh they are increas- ingly suppressed, which is consistent with Fermi liquid coherence. However, beyond a certain threshold value of µ, fluctuations persist to the lowest temperatures. At the same time, while not apparent in the DMFT results, the total occupation n increases quite strongly in a very narrow range around the same value of µ. The evolution of n with µ is always continuous, but hints at a discontinuity in the limit Nc → ∞. This first-order transition breaks the Kondo effect. Beyond the transition, a ferromagnetic state in the first layer is established, and the second layer becomes a decoupled overlayer.
These observations provide a quite appealing interpretation of the experimental results. As a function of chemical potential, the Kondo breakdown quantum critical point is preempted by a first-order transition, where the layers decouple and the first layer turns into a ferromagnet. In the experimental situation, where the filling can be tuned directly, the discontinuous transition is mirrored by a phase separation, which interpolates between the Fermi liquid ground state at lower filling and the magnetic state at higher filling. This is precisely the range of the intervening phase found in the experiments, which is characterized by an onset of a finite sample magnetization.
Besides the interplay of heavy fermion physics and magnetic exchange, recently the spin- orbit coupling, which is present in many heavy fermion materials, attracted a lot of interest. In the presence of time-reversal symmetry, due to spin-orbit coupling, there is the possibility of a topological ground state.
It was recently conjectured that the energy scale of spin-orbit coupling can become dom- inant in heavy fermion materials, since the coherence scale and quasiparticle bandwidth are rather small. This can lead to a heavy fermion ground state with a nontrivial band topology; that is, a topological Kondo insulator (TKI). While being subject to strong correlation effects, this state must be adiabatically connected to a non-interacting, topological state.
The idea of the topological ground state realized in prototypical Kondo insulators, in par- ticular SmB6, promises to shed light on some of the peculiarities of these materials, like a residual conductivity at the lowest temperatures, which have remained unresolved so far.
In this work, a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single Kramer’s doublet coupled to a single conduction band. The model is investigated in the presence of a Hubbard interaction as a function of interaction strength U and inverse temperature β. The bulk properties of the model are obtained by DMFT, with a hybridization expansion CTQMC impurity solver. The DMFT approximation of a local self-energy leads to a very simple way of computing the topological invariant.
The results show that with increasing U the system can be driven through a topological phase transition. Interestingly, the transition is between distinct topological insulating states, namely the Γ-phase and M-phase. This appearance of different topological phases is possible due to the symmetry of the underlying square lattice. By adiabatically connecting both in- teracting states with the respective non-interacting state, it is shown that the transition indeed drives the system from the Γ-phase to the M-phase.
A different behavior can be observed by pushing the bare position of the Kramer’s doublet to higher binding energies. In this case, the non-interacting starting point has a trivial band topology. By switching on the interaction, the system can be tuned through a quantum phase transition, with a closing of the band gap. Upon reopening of the band gap, the system is in the Γ-phase, i. e. a topological insulator. By increasing the interaction strength further, the system moves into a strongly correlated regime. In fact, close to the expected transition to the M phase, the mass renormalization becomes quite substantial. While absent in the para- magnetic DMFT simulations conducted, it is conceivable that instead of a topological phase transition, the system undergoes a time-reversal symmetry breaking, magnetic transition.
The regime of strong correlations is studied in more detail as a function of temperature, both in the bulk and with open boundary conditions. A quantity which proved very useful is the bulk topological invariant Ns, which can be generalized to finite interaction strength and temperature. In particular, it can be used to define a temperature scale T ∗ for the onset of the topological state. Rescaling the results for Ns, a nice data collapse of the results for different values of U, from the local moment regime to strongly mixed valence, is obtained. This hints at T ∗ being a universal low energy scale in topological Kondo insulators. Indeed, by comparing T ∗ with the coherence scale extracted from the self-energy mass renormalization, it is found that both scales are equivalent up to a constant prefactor. Hence, the scale T ∗ obtained from the temperature dependence of topological properties, can be used as an independent measure for Fermi liquid coherence. This is particularly useful in the experimentally relevant mixed valence regime, where charge fluctuations cannot be neglected. Here, a separation of the energy scales related to spin and charge fluctuations is not possible.
The importance of charge fluctuations becomes evident in the extent of spectral weight transfer as the temperature is lowered. For mixed valence, while the hybridization gap emerges, a substantial amount of spectral weight is shifted from the vicinity of the Fermi level to the lower Hubbard band. In contrast, this effect is strongly suppressed in the local moment regime.
In addition to the bulk properties, the spectral function for open boundaries is studied as a function of temperature, both in the local moment and mixed valence regime. This allows an investigation of the emergence of topological edge states with temperature. The method used here is the site-dependent DMFT, which is a generalization of the conventional DMFT to inhomogeneous systems. The hybridization expansion CTQMC algorithm is used as impurity solver.
By comparison with the bulk results for the topological quantity Ns, it is found that the
temperature scale for the appearance of the topological edge states is T ∗, both in the mixed valence and local moment regime.

In this thesis, we investigate several topics pertaining to emergent collective quantum phenomena in the domain of correlated fermions, using the quantum Monte Carlo method. They display exotic low temperature phases as well as phase transitions which are beyond the Landau–Ginzburg theory. The interplay between three key points is crucial for us: fermion statistics, many body effects and topology. We highlight the following several achievements: 1. Successful modeling of continuum field theories with lattice Hamiltonians, 2. their sign-problem-free Monte Carlo simulations of these models, 3. and numerical results beyond mean field descriptions. First, we consider a model of Dirac fermions with a spin rotational invariant inter- action term that dynamically generates a quantum spin Hall insulator. Surprisingly, an s-wave superconducting phase emerges due to the condensation of topological de- fects of the spin Hall order parameter. When particle-hole symmetry is present, the phase transition between the topological insulator and the superconducting phase is an example of a deconfined quantum critical point(DQCP). Although its low energy effec- tive field theory is purely bosonic, the exact conservation law of the skyrmion number operator rules out the possibility of realizing this critical point in lattice boson models. This work is published in Ref. [1]. Second, we dope the dynamically generated quantum spin Hall insulator mentioned above. Hence it is described by a field theory without Lorentz invariance due to the lack of particle-hole symmetry. This sheds light on the extremely hot topic of twisted bilayergraphene: Why is superconductivity generated when the repulsive Coulomb interaction is much stronger than the electron-phonon coupling energy scale? In our case, Cooper pairs come from the topological skyrmion defects of the spin current order parameter, which are charged. Remarkably, the nature of the phase transition is highly non-mean-field-like: one is not allowed to simply view pairs of electrons as single bosons in a superfluid-Mott insulator transition, since the spin-current order parameter can not be ignored. Again, due to the aforementioned skyrmions, the two order parameters are intertwined: One phase transition occurs between the two symmetry breaking states. This work is summarized in Ref. [2]. Third, we investigate the 2 + 1 dimensional O(5) nonlinear sigma model with a topological Wess-Zumino-Witten term. Remarkably, we are able to perform Monte Carlo calculations with a UV cutoff given by the Dirac Landau level quantization. It is a successful example of simulating a continuous field theory without lattice regularization which leads to an additional symmetry breaking. The Dirac background and the five anti-commuting Dirac mass terms naturally introduce the picture of a non-trivial Berry phase contribution in the parameter space of the five component order parameter. Using the finite size scaling method given by the flux quantization, we find a stable critical phase in the low stiffness region of the sigma model. This is a candidate ground state of DQCP when the O(5) symmetry breaking terms are irrelevant at the critical point. Again, it has a bosonic low energy field theory which is seemingly unable to be realized in pure boson Hamiltonians. This work is summarized in Ref. [3].

In this thesis, we investigate aspects of the physics of heavy-fermion systems and correlated topological insulators.
We numerically solve the interacting Hamiltonians that model the physical systems using quantum Monte Carlo algorithms
to access both ground-state and finite-temperature observables.
Initially, we focus on the metamagnetic transition in the Kondo lattice model for heavy fermions.
On the basis of the dynamical mean-field theory and the dynamical cluster approximation,
our calculations point towards a continuous transition, where the signatures of metamagnetism are linked to a Lifshitz transition of heavy-fermion bands.
In the second part of the thesis, we study various aspects of magnetic pi fluxes in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model of a correlated topological insulator.
We describe a numerical measurement of the topological index, based on the localized mid-gap states that are provided by pi flux insertions.
Furthermore, we take advantage of the intrinsic spin degree of freedom of a pi flux to devise instances of interacting quantum spin systems.
In the third part of the thesis, we introduce and characterize the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on the pi flux honeycomb lattice.
We place particular emphasis on the correlations effects along the one-dimensional boundary of the lattice and
compare results from a bosonization study with finite-size quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

This thesis deals with quantum Monte Carlo simulations of correlated low dimensional electron systems. The correlation that we have in mind is always given by the Hubbard type electron electron interaction in various settings. To facilitate this task, we develop the necessary methods in the first part. We develop the continuous time interaction expansion quantum algorithm in a manner suitable for the treatment of effective and non-equilibrium problems. In the second part of this thesis we consider various applications of the algorithms. First we examine a correlated one-dimensional chain of electrons that is subject to some form of quench dynamics where we suddenly switch off the Hubbard interaction. We find the light-cone-like Lieb-Robinson bounds and forms of restricted equilibration subject to the conserved quantities. Then we consider a Hubbard chain subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling in thermal equilibrium. This system could very well be realized on a surface with the help of metallic adatoms. We find that we can analytically connect the given model to a model without spin-orbit coupling. This link enabled us to interpret various results for the standard Hubbard model, such as the single-particle spectra, now in the context of the Hubbard model with Rashba spin-orbit interaction. And finally we have considered a magnetic impurity in a host consisting of a topological insulator. We find that the impurity still exhibits the same features as known from the single impurity Anderson model. Additionally we study the effects of the impurity in the bath and we find that in the parameter regime where the Kondo singlet is formed the edge state of the topological insulator is rerouted around the impurity.

Adding interactions to topological (non-)trivial free fermion systems can in general have four different effects: (i) In symmetry protected topological band insulators, the correlations may lead to the spontaneous breaking of some protecting symmetries by long-range order that gaps the topological boundary modes. (ii) In free fermion (semi-)metal, the interaction could vice versa also generate long-range order that in turn induces a topological mass term and thus generates non-trivial phases dynamically. (iii) Correlation might reduce the topological classification of free fermion systems by allowing adiabatic deformations between states of formerly distinct phases. (iv) Interaction can generate long-range entangled topological order in states such as quantum spin liquids or fractional quantum Hall states that cannot be represented by non-interacting systems. During the course of this thesis, we use numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo algorithms to study various model systems that (potentially) represent one of the four scenarios, respectively.
First, we investigate a two-dimensional $d_{xy}$-wave, spin-singlet superconductor, which is relevant for high-$T_c$ materials such as the cuprates. This model represents nodal topological superconductors and exhibits chiral flat-band edge states that are protected by time-reversal and translational invariance. We introduce the conventional Hubbard interaction along the edge in order to study their stability with respect to correlations and find ferromagnetic order in case of repulsive interaction as well as charge-density-wave order and/or additional $i$s-wave pairing for attractive couplings. A mean-field analysis that, for the first time, is formulated in terms of the Majorana edge modes suggests that any order has normal and superconducting contributions. For example, the ferromagnetic order appears in linear superposition with triplet pairing. This finding is well confirmed by the numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo investigation.
Second, we consider spinless electrons on a two-dimensional Lieb lattice that are subject to nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion. The low energy modes of the free fermion part constitute a spin-$1$ Dirac cone that might be gapped by several mass terms. One option breaks time-reversal symmetry and generates a topological Chern insulator, which mainly motivated this study. We employ two flavors of quantum Monte Carlo methods and find instead the formation of charge-density-wave order that breaks particle-hole symmetry. Additionally, due to sublattices of unequal size in Lieb lattices, this induces a finite chemical potential that drives the system away from half-filling. We argue that this mechanism potentially extends the range of solvable models with finite doping by coupling the Lieb lattice to the target system of interest.
Third, we construct a system with four layers of a topological insulators and interlayer correlation that respects one independent time-reversal and a unitary $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry. Previous studies claim a reduced topological classification from $\mathbb{Z}$ to $\mathbb{Z}_4$, for example by gapping out degenerate zero modes in topological defects once the correlation term is designed properly. Our interaction is chosen according to this analysis such that there should exist an adiabatic deformation between states whose topological invariant differs by $\Delta w=\pm4$ in the free fermion classification. We use a projective quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to determine the ground-state phase diagram and find a symmetry breaking regime, in addition to the non-interacting semi-metal, that separates the free fermion insulators. Frustration reduces the size of the long-range ordered region until it is replaced by a first order phase transition. Within the investigated range of parameters, there is no adiabatic path deforming the formerly distinct free fermion states into each other. We conclude that the prescribed reduction rules, which often use the bulk-boundary correspondence, are necessary but not sufficient and require a more careful investigation.
Fourth, we study conduction electron on a honeycomb lattice that form a Dirac semi-metal Kondo coupled to spin-1/2 degrees of freedom on a Kagome lattice. The local moments are described by a variant of the Balents-Fisher-Girvin model that has been shown to host a ferromagnetic phase and a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ spin liquid at strong frustration. Here, we report the first numerical exact quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the Kondo-coupled system that does not exhibit the negative-sign problem. When the local moments form a ferromagnet, the Kondo coupling induces an anti-ferromagnetic mass term in the conduction-electron system. At large frustration, the Dirac cone remains massless and the spin system forms a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ spin liquid. Owing to the odd number of spins per unit cell, this constitutes a non-Fermi liquid that violates Luttinger's theorem which relates the Fermi volume to the particle density in a Fermi liquid. This phase is a specific realization of the so called 'fractional Fermi liquid` as it has been first introduced in the context of heavy fermion models.

In this thesis we consider the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for simulations of the Hubbard and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. In the first instance, we discuss the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for the Hubbard model on a square lattice. We point out potential ergodicity issues and provide a way to circumvent them by a complexification of the method. Furthermore, we compare the efficiency of the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method with a well established determinantal quantum Monte Carlo method for simulations of the half-filled Hubbard model on square lattices. One reason why the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method loses the comparison is that we do not observe the desired sub-quadratic scaling of the numerical effort. Afterwards we present a formulation of the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model in two dimensions. Electron-phonon models like this are in general very hard to simulate using other Monte Carlo methods in more than one dimensions. It turns out that the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method is much better suited for this model . We achieve favorable scaling properties and provide a proof of concept. Subsequently, we use the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method to investigate the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model in detail at half-filling in two dimensions. We present numerical data for staggered valence bond order at small phonon frequencies and an antiferromagnetic order at high frequencies. Due to an O(4) symmetry the antiferromagnetic order is connected to a superconducting charge density wave. Considering the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model without tight-binding hopping reveals an additional unconstrained Z_2 gauge theory. In this case, we find indications for π-fluxes and a possible Z_2 Dirac deconfined phase as well as for a columnar valence bond ordered state at low phonon energies. In our investigations of the several phase transitions we discuss the different possibilities for the underlying mechanisms and reveal first insights into a rich phase diagram.

Photoelectron spectroscopy proves as a versatile tool for investigating various aspects of the electronic structure in strongly correlated electron systems. Influencing the manifestation of strong correlation in Ce-based surface alloys is the main task of this work. It is shown, that the manifestation of the Kondo ground state is influenced by a multitude of parameters such as the choice of the metal binding partner in binary Ce compounds, the surface alloy layer thickness and accompanying variations in the lattice structure as well as the interfaces to substrate or vacuum. Gaining access to these parameters allows to directly influence essential state variables, such as the f level occupancy nf or the Kondo temperature TK.
The center of this work are the intermetallic thin films of CePt5/Pt(111) and CeAgx/Ag(111). By utilizing different excitation energies, photoemission spectroscopy provides access to characteristic features of Kondo physics in the valence band, such as the Kondo resonance and its spin-orbit partner at the Fermi level, as well as the multiplet structure of the Ce 3d core levels. In this work both approaches are applied to CePt5/Pt(111) to determine nf and TK for a variety of surface alloy layer thicknesses. A temperature dependent study of the Ce 3d core levels allows to determine the systems TK for the different layer thicknesses. This leads to TK ≈200–270K in the thin layer thickness regime and TK >280K for larger layer thicknesses. These results are confirmed by fitting the Ce 3d multiplet based on the Gunnarsson-Schönhammer formalism for core level spectroscopy and additionally by valence band photoemission spectra of the respective Kondo resonances. The influence of varying layer thickness on the manifestation of strong correlation is subsequently studied for the surface alloy CeAgx/Ag(111). Furthermore, the heavy element Bi is added, to investigate the effects of strong spin-orbit coupling on the electronic structure of the surface alloy.

Clearly, in nature, but also in technological applications, complex systems built in an entirely ordered and regular fashion are the exception rather than the rule. In this thesis we explore how critical phenomena are influenced by quenched spatial randomness. Specifically, we consider physical systems undergoing a continuous phase transition in the presence of topological disorder, where the underlying structure, on which the system evolves, is given by a non-regular, discrete lattice. We therefore endeavour to achieve a thorough understanding of the interplay between collective dynamics and quenched randomness.
According to the intriguing concept of universality, certain laws emerge from collectively behaving many-body systems at criticality, almost regardless of the precise microscopic realization of interactions in those systems. As a consequence, vastly different phenomena show striking similarities at their respective phase transitions. In this dissertation we pursue the question of whether the universal properties of critical phenomena are preserved when the system is subjected to topological perturbations. For this purpose, we perform numerical simulations of several prototypical systems of statistical physics which show a continuous phase transition. In particular, the equilibrium spin-1/2 Ising model and its generalizations represent -- among other applications -- fairly natural approaches to model magnetism in solids, whereas the non-equilibrium contact process serves as a toy model for percolation in porous media and epidemic spreading. Finally, the Manna sandpile model is strongly related to the concept of self-organized criticality, where a complex dynamic system reaches a critical state without fine-tuning of external variables.
Our results reveal that the prevailing understanding of the influence of topological randomness on critical phenomena is insufficient. In particular, by considering very specific and newly developed lattice structures, we are able to show that -- contrary to the popular opinion -- spatial correlations in the number of interacting neighbours are not a key measure for predicting whether disorder ultimately alters the behaviour of a given critical system.