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#### Institute

In the thesis discrete moments of the Riemann zeta-function and allied Dirichlet series are studied.
In the first part the asymptotic value-distribution of zeta-functions is studied where the samples are taken from a Cauchy random walk on a vertical line inside the critical strip. Building on techniques by Lifshits and Weber analogous results for the Hurwitz zeta-function are derived. Using Atkinson’s dissection this is even generalized to Dirichlet L-functions associated with a primitive character. Both results indicate that the expectation value equals one which shows that the values of these
zeta-function are small on average.
The second part deals with the logarithmic derivative of the Riemann zeta-function on vertical lines and here the samples are with respect to an explicit ergodic transformation. Extending work of Steuding, discrete moments are evaluated and an equivalent formulation for the Riemann Hypothesis in terms of ergodic theory is obtained.
In the third and last part of the thesis, the phenomenon of universality with respect
to stochastic processes is studied. It is shown that certain random shifts of the zeta-function can approximate non-vanishing analytic target functions as good as we please. This result relies on Voronin's universality theorem.

The thesis ’Hurwitz’s Complex Continued Fractions - A Historical Approach and Modern Perspectives.’ deals with two branches of mathematics: Number Theory and History of Mathematics. On the first glimpse this might be unexpected, however, on the second view this is a very fruitful combination. Doing research in mathematics, it turns out to be very helpful to be aware of the beginnings and development of the corresponding subject.
In the case of Complex Continued Fractions the origins can easily be traced back to the end of the 19th century (see [Perron, 1954, vl. 1, Ch. 46]). One of their godfathers had been the famous mathematician Adolf Hurwitz. During the study of his transformation from real to complex continued fraction theory [Hurwitz, 1888], our attention was arrested by the article ’Ueber eine besondere Art der Kettenbruch-Entwicklung complexer Grössen’ [Hurwitz, 1895] from 1895 of an author called J. Hurwitz. We were not only surprised when we found out that he was the elder unknown brother Julius, furthermore, Julius Hurwitz introduced a complex continued fraction that also appeared (unmentioned) in an ergodic theoretical work from 1985 [Tanaka, 1985]. Those observations formed the Basis of our main research questions:
What is the historical background of Adolf and Julius Hurwitz and their mathematical studies? and What modern perspectives are provided by their complex continued fraction expansions?
In this work we examine complex continued fractions from various viewpoints. After a brief introduction on real continued fractions, we firstly devote ourselves to the lives of the brothers Adolf and Julius Hurwitz. Two excursions on selected historical aspects in respect to their work complete this historical chapter. In the sequel we shed light on Hurwitz’s, Adolf’s as well as Julius’, approaches to complex continued fraction expansions.
Correspondingly, in the following chapter we take a more modern perspective. Highlights are an ergodic theoretical result, namely a variation on the Döblin-Lenstra Conjecture [Bosma et al., 1983], as well as a result on transcendental numbers in tradition of Roth’s theorem [Roth, 1955]. In two subsequent chapters we are concernced with arithmetical properties of complex continued fractions. Firstly, an analogue to Marshall Hall’s Theorem from 1947 [Hall, 1947] on sums of continued fractions is derived. Secondly, a general approach on new types of continued fractions is presented building on the structural properties of lattices. Finally, in the last chapter we take up this approach and obtain an upper bound for the approximation quality of diophantine approximations by quotients of lattice points in the complex plane generalizing a method of Hermann Minkowski, improved by Hilde Gintner [Gintner, 1936], based on ideas from geometry of numbers.

The Riemann zeta-function forms a central object in multiplicative number theory; its value-distribution encodes deep arithmetic properties of the prime numbers. Here, a crucial role is assigned to the analytic behavior of the zeta-function on the so called critical line. In this thesis we study the value-distribution of the Riemann zeta-function near and on the critical line. Amongst others we focus on the following.
PART I: A modified concept of universality, a-points near the critical line and a denseness conjecture attributed to Ramachandra.
The critical line is a natural boundary of the Voronin-type universality property of the Riemann zeta-function. We modify Voronin's concept by adding a scaling factor to the vertical shifts that appear in Voronin's universality theorem and investigate whether this modified concept is appropriate to keep up a certain universality property of the Riemann zeta-function near and on the critical line. It turns out that it is mainly the functional equation of the Riemann zeta-function that restricts the set of functions which can be approximated by this modified concept around the critical line.
Levinson showed that almost all a-points of the Riemann zeta-function lie in a certain funnel-shaped region around the critical line. We complement Levinson's result: Relying on arguments of the theory of normal families and the notion of filling discs, we detect a-points in this region which are very close to the critical line.
According to a folklore conjecture (often attributed to Ramachandra) one expects that the values of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line lie dense in the complex numbers. We show that there are certain curves which approach the critical line asymptotically and have the property that the values of the zeta-function on these curves are dense in the complex numbers.
Many of our results in part I are independent of the Euler product representation of the Riemann zeta-function and apply for meromorphic functions that satisfy a Riemann-type functional equation in general.
PART II: Discrete and continuous moments.
The Lindelöf hypothesis deals with the growth behavior of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line. Due to classical works by Hardy and Littlewood, the Lindelöf hypothesis can be reformulated in terms of power moments to the right of the critical line. Tanaka showed recently that the expected asymptotic formulas for these power moments are true in a certain measure-theoretical sense; roughly speaking he omits a set of Banach density zero from the path of integration of these moments. We provide a discrete and integrated version of Tanaka's result and extend it to a large class of Dirichlet series connected to the Riemann zeta-function.

Our starting point is the Jacobsthal function \(j(m)\), defined for each positive integer \(m\) as the smallest number such that every \(j(m)\) consecutive integers contain at least one integer relatively prime to \(m\). It has turned out that improving on upper bounds for \(j(m)\) would also lead to advances in understanding the distribution of prime numbers among arithmetic progressions. If \(P_r\) denotes the product of the first \(r\) prime numbers, then a conjecture of Montgomery states that \(j(P_r)\) can be bounded from above by \(r (\log r)^2\) up to some constant factor. However, the until now very promising sieve methods seem to have reached a limit here, and the main goal of this work is to develop other combinatorial methods in hope of coming a bit closer to prove the conjecture of Montgomery. Alongside, we solve a problem of Recamán about the maximum possible length among arithmetic progressions in the least (positive) reduced residue system modulo \(m\). Lastly, we turn towards three additive representation functions as introduced by Erdős, Sárközy and Sós who studied their surprising different monotonicity behavior. By an alternative approach, we answer a question of Sárközy and demostrate that another conjecture does not hold.

The starting point of the thesis is the {\it universality} property of the Riemann Zeta-function $\zeta(s)$
which was proved by Voronin in 1975:
{\it Given a positive number $\varepsilon>0$ and an analytic non-vanishing function $f$ defined on a compact subset $\mathcal{K}$ of the strip $\left\{s\in\mathbb{C}:1/2 < \Re s< 1\right\}$ with connected complement, there exists a real number $\tau$ such that
\begin{align}\label{continuous}
\max\limits_{s\in \mathcal{K}}|\zeta(s+i\tau)-f(s)|<\varepsilon.
\end{align}
}
In 1980, Reich proved a discrete analogue of Voronin’s theorem, also known as {\it discrete universality theorem} for $\zeta(s)$:
{\it If $\mathcal{K}$, $f$ and $\varepsilon$ are as before, then
\begin{align}\label{discretee}
\liminf\limits_{N\to\infty}\dfrac{1}{N}\sharp\left\{1\leq n\leq N:\max\limits_{s\in \mathcal{K}}|\zeta(s+i\Delta n)-f(s)|<\varepsilon\right\}>0,
\end{align}
where $\Delta$ is an arbitrary but fixed positive number.
}
We aim at developing a theory which can be applied to prove the majority of all so far existing discrete universality theorems in the case of Dirichlet $L$-functions $L(s,\chi)$ and Hurwitz zeta-functions $\zeta(s;\alpha)$,
where $\chi$ is a Dirichlet character and $\alpha\in(0,1]$, respectively.
Both of the aforementioned classes of functions are generalizations of $\zeta(s)$, since $\zeta(s)=L(s,\chi_0)=\zeta(s;1)$, where $\chi_0$ is the principal Dirichlet character mod 1.
Amongst others, we prove statement (2) where instead of $\zeta(s)$ we have $L(s,\chi)$ for some Dirichlet character $\chi$ or $\zeta(s;\alpha)$ for some transcendental or rational number $\alpha\in(0,1]$, and instead of $(\Delta n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ we can have:
\begin{enumerate}
\item \textit{Beatty sequences,}
\item \textit{sequences of ordinates of $c$-points of zeta-functions from the Selberg class,}
\item \textit{sequences which are generated by polynomials.}
\end{enumerate}
In all the preceding cases, the notion of {\it uniformly distributed sequences} plays an important role and we draw attention to it wherever we can.
Moreover, for the case of polynomials, we employ more advanced techniques from Analytic Number Theory such as bounds of exponential sums and zero-density estimates for Dirichlet $L$-functions.
This will allow us to prove the existence of discrete second moments of $L(s,\chi)$ and $\zeta(s;\alpha)$ on the left of the vertical line $1+i\mathbb{R}$, with respect to polynomials.
In the case of the Hurwitz Zeta-function $\zeta(s;\alpha)$, where $\alpha$ is transcendental or rational but not equal to $1/2$ or 1, the target function $f$ in (1) or (2), where $\zeta(\cdot)$ is replaced by $\zeta(\cdot;\alpha)$, is also allowed to have zeros.
Until recently there was no result regarding the universality of $\zeta(s;\alpha)$ in the literature whenever $\alpha$ is an algebraic irrational.
In the second half of the thesis, we prove that a weak version of statement \eqref{continuous} for $\zeta(s;\alpha)$ holds for all but finitely many algebraic irrational $\alpha$ in $[A,1]$, where $A\in(0,1]$ is an arbitrary but fixed real number.
Lastly, we prove that the ordinary Dirichlet series
$\zeta(s;f)=\sum_{n\geq1}f(n)n^{-s}$ and $\zeta_\alpha(s)=\sum_{n\geq1}\lfloor P(\alpha n+\beta)\rfloor^{-s}$
are hypertranscendental, where $f:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{C}$ is a {\it Besicovitch almost periodic arithmetical function}, $\alpha,\beta>0$ are such that $\lfloor\alpha+\beta\rfloor>1$ and $P\in\mathbb{Z}[X]$ is such that $P(\mathbb{N})\subseteq\mathbb{N}$.

Beatty sets (also called Beatty sequences) have appeared as early as 1772 in the astronomical studies of Johann III Bernoulli as a tool for easing manual calculations and - as Elwin Bruno Christoffel pointed out in 1888 - lend themselves to exposing intricate properties of the real irrationals. Since then, numerous researchers have explored a multitude of arithmetic properties of Beatty sets; the interrelation between Beatty sets and modular inversion, as well as Beatty sets and the set of rational primes, being the central topic of this book. The inquiry into the relation to rational primes is complemented by considering a natural generalisation to imaginary quadratic number fields.

In the present thesis we investigate algebraic and arithmetic properties of graph spectra. In particular, we study the algebraic degree of a graph, that is the dimension of the splitting field of the characteristic polynomial of the associated adjacency matrix over the rationals, and examine the question whether there is a relation between the algebraic degree of a graph and its structural properties. This generalizes the yet open question ``Which graphs have integral spectra?'' stated by Harary and Schwenk in 1974.
We provide an overview of graph products since they are useful to study graph spectra and, in particular, to construct families of integral graphs. Moreover, we present a relation between the diameter, the maximum vertex degree and the algebraic degree of a graph, and construct a potential family of graphs of maximum algebraic degree.
Furthermore, we determine precisely the algebraic degree of circulant graphs and find new criteria for isospectrality of circulant graphs. Moreover, we solve the inverse Galois problem for circulant graphs showing that every finite abelian extension of the rationals is the splitting field of some circulant graph. Those results generalize a theorem of So who characterized all integral circulant graphs. For our proofs we exploit the theory of Schur rings which was already used in order to solve the isomorphism problem for circulant graphs.
Besides that, we study spectra of zero-divisor graphs over finite commutative rings.
Given a ring \(R\), the zero-divisor graph over \(R\) is defined as the graph with vertex set being the set of non-zero zero-divisors of \(R\) where two vertices \(x,y\) are adjacent if and only if \(xy=0\). We investigate relations between the eigenvalues of a zero-divisor graph, its structural properties and the algebraic properties of the respective ring.

The dissertation investigates the wide class of Epstein zeta-functions in terms of uniform distribution modulo one of the ordinates of their nontrivial zeros. Main results are a proof of a Landau type theorem for all Epstein zeta-functions as well as uniform distribution modulo one for the zero ordinates of all Epstein zeta-functions asscoiated with binary quadratic forms.

In the thesis at hand, several sequences of number theoretic interest will be studied in the context of uniform distribution modulo one. <br>
<br>
In the first part we deduce for positive and real \(z\not=1\) a discrepancy estimate for the sequence \( \left((2\pi )^{-1}(\log z)\gamma_a\right) \),
where \(\gamma_a\) runs through the positive imaginary parts of the nontrivial \(a\)-points of the Riemann zeta-function. If the considered imaginary
parts are bounded by \(T\), the discrepancy of the sequence \( \left((2\pi )^{-1}(\log z)\gamma_a\right) \) tends to zero like
\( (\log\log\log T)^{-1} \) as \(T\rightarrow \infty\). The proof is related to the proof of Hlawka, who determined a discrepancy estimate for the
sequence containing the positive imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. <br>
<br>
The second part of this thesis is about a sequence whose asymptotic behaviour is motivated by the sequence of primes. If \( \alpha\not=0\) is real
and \(f\) is a function of logarithmic growth, we specify several conditions such that the sequence \( (\alpha f(q_n)) \) is uniformly distributed
modulo one. The corresponding discrepancy estimates will be stated. The sequence \( (q_n)\) of real numbers is strictly increasing and the conditions
on its counting function \( Q(x)=\#\lbrace q_n \leq x \rbrace \) are satisfied by primes and primes in arithmetic progessions. As an application we
obtain that the sequence \( \left( (\log q_n)^K\right)\) is uniformly distributed modulo one for arbitrary \(K>1\), if the \(q_n\) are primes or primes
in arithmetic progessions. The special case that \(q_n\) equals the \(\textit{n}\)th prime number \(p_n\) was studied by Too, Goto and Kano. <br>
<br>
In the last part of this thesis we study for irrational \(\alpha\) the sequence \( (\alpha p_n)\) of irrational multiples of primes in the context of
weighted uniform distribution modulo one. A result of Vinogradov concerning exponential sums states that this sequence is uniformly distributed modulo one.
An alternative proof due to Vaaler uses L-functions. We extend this approach in the context of the Selberg class with polynomial Euler product. By doing so, we obtain
two weighted versions of Vinogradov's result: The sequence \( (\alpha p_n)\) is \( (1+\chi_{D}(p_n))\log p_n\)-uniformly distributed modulo one, where
\( \chi_D\) denotes the Legendre-Kronecker character. In the proof we use the Dedekind zeta-function of the quadratic number field \( \Bbb Q (\sqrt{D})\).
As an application we obtain in case of \(D=-1\), that \( (\alpha p_n)\) is uniformly distributed modulo one, if the considered primes are congruent to
one modulo four. Assuming additional conditions on the functions from the Selberg class we prove that the sequence \( (\alpha p_n) \) is also
\( (\sum_{j=1}^{\nu_F}{\alpha_j(p_n)})\log p_n\)-uniformly distributed modulo one, where the weights are related to the Euler product of the function.

This thesis aims at providing efficient and side-channel protected implementations of isogeny-based primitives, and at their application in threshold protocols. It is based on a sequence of academic papers.
Chapter 3 reviews the original variable-time implementation of CSIDH and introduces several optimizations, e.g. a significant improvement of isogeny computations by using both Montgomery and Edwards curves. In total, our improvements yield a speedup of 25% compared to the original implementation.
Chapter 4 presents the first practical constant-time implementation of CSIDH. We describe how variable-time implementations of CSIDH leak information on private keys, and describe ways to mitigate this. Further, we present several techniques to speed up the implementation. In total, our constant-time implementation achieves a rather small slowdown by a factor of 3.03.
Chapter 5 reviews practical fault injection attacks on CSIDH and presents countermeasures. We evaluate different attack models theoretically and practically, using low-budget equipment. Moreover, we present countermeasures that mitigate the proposed fault injection attacks, only leading to a small performance overhead of 7%.
Chapter 6 initiates the study of threshold schemes based on the Hard Homogeneous Spaces (HHS) framework of Couveignes. Using the HHS equivalent of Shamir’s secret sharing in the exponents, we adapt isogeny based schemes to the threshold setting. In particular, we present threshold versions of the CSIDH public key encryption and the CSI-FiSh signature scheme.
Chapter 7 gives a sieving algorithm for finding pairs of consecutive smooth numbers that utilizes solutions to the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott (PTE) problem. Recent compact isogeny-based protocols, namely B-SIDH and SQISign, both require large primes that lie between two smooth integers. Finding such a prime can be seen as a special case of finding twin smooth integers under the additional stipulation that their sum is a prime.