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Emergent phenomena in condensed matter physics like, e.g., magnetism, superconductivity, or non-trivial topology often come along with a surprise and exert great fascination to researchers up to this day. Within this thesis, we are concerned with the analysis of associated types of order that arise due to strong electronic interactions and focus on the high-\(T_c\) cuprates and Kondo systems as two prime candidates. The underlying many-body problem cannot be solved analytically and has given rise to the development of various approximation techniques to tackle the problem.
In concrete terms, we apply the auxiliary particle approach to investigate tight-binding Hamiltonians subject to a Hubbard interaction term to account for the screened Coulomb repulsion. Thereby, we adopt the so-called Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave-boson representation that reduces the problem to non-interacting quasiparticles within a mean-field approximation. Part I provides a pedagogical review of the theory and generalizes the established formalism to encompass Gaussian fluctuations around magnetic ground states as a crucial step to obtaining novel results.
Part II addresses the two-dimensional one-band Hubbard model, which is known to approximately describe the physics of the high-\(T_c\) cuprates that feature high-temperature superconductivity and various other exotic quantum phases that are not yet fully understood. First, we provide a comprehensive slave-boson analysis of the model, including the discussion of incommensurate magnetic phases, collective modes, and a comparison to other theoretical methods that shows that our results can be massively improved through the newly implemented fluctuation corrections. Afterward, we focus on the underdoped regime and find an intertwining of spin and charge order signaled by divergences of the static charge susceptibility within the antiferromagnetic domain. There is experimental evidence for such inhomogeneous phases in various cuprate materials, which has recently aroused interest because such correlations are believed to impact the formation of Cooper pairs. Our analysis identifies two distinct charge-ordering vectors, one of which can be attributed to a Fermi-surface nesting effect and quantitatively fits experimental data in \(\mathrm{Nd}_{2-\mathrm{x}}\mathrm{Ce}_\mathrm{x}\mathrm{CuO}_4\) (NCCO), an electron-doped cuprate compound. The other resembles the so-called Yamada relation implying the formation of periodic, double-occupied domain walls with a crossover to phase separation for small dopings.
Part III investigates Kondo systems by analyzing the periodic Anderson model and its generalizations. First, we consider Kondo metals and detect weakly magnetized ferromagnetic order in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, which hinders the formation of heavy fermions. Nevertheless, we suggest two different parameter regimes that could host a possible Kondo regime in the context of one or two conduction bands. The part is concluded with the study of topological order in Kondo insulators based on a three-dimensional model with centrosymmetric spin-orbit coupling. Thereby, we classify topologically distinct phases through appropriate \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) invariants and consider paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic mean-field ground states. Our model parameters are chosen to specifically describe samarium hexaboride (\(\mbox{SmB}_6\)), which is widely believed to be a topological Kondo insulator, and we identify topologically protected surface states in agreement with experimental evidence in that material. Moreover, our theory predicts the emergence of an antiferromagnetic topological insulator featuring one-dimensional hinge-states as the signature of higher-order topology in the strong coupling regime. While the nature of the true ground state is still under debate, corresponding long-range magnetic order has been observed in pressurized or alloyed \(\mbox{SmB}_6\), and recent experimental findings point towards non-trivial topology under these circumstances. The ability to understand and control topological systems brings forth promising applications in the context of spintronics and quantum computing.

The fascination of microcavity exciton-polaritons (polaritons) rests upon the combination of advanced technological control over both the III-V semiconductor material platform as well as the precise spectroscopic access to polaritonic states, which provide access to the investigation of open questions and complex phenomena due to the inherent nonlinearity and direct spectroscopic observables such as energy-resolved real and Fourier space information, pseudospin and coherence. The focus of this work was to advance the research area of polariton lattice simulators with a particular emphasis on their lasing properties. Following the brief introduction into the fundamental physics of polariton lattices in chapter 2, important aspects of the sample fabrication as well as the Fourier spectroscopy techniques used to investigate various features of these lattices were summarized in chapter 3. Here, the implementation of a spatial light modulator for advanced excitation schemes was presented.
At the foundation of this work is the capability to confine polaritons into micropillars or microtraps resulting in discrete energy levels. By arranging these pillars or traps into various lattice geometries and ensuring coupling between neighbouring sites, polaritonic band structures were engineered. In chapter 4, the formation of a band structure was visualised in detail by investigating ribbons of honeycomb lattices. Here, the transition of the discrete energy levels of a single chain of microtraps to the fully developed band structure of a honeycomb lattice was observed. This study allows to design the size of individual domains in more complicated lattice geometries such that a description using band structures becomes feasible, as it revealed that a width of just six unit cells is sufficient to reproduce all characteristic features of the S band of a honeycomb lattice. In particular in the context of potential technological applications in the realms of lasing, the laser-like, coherent emission from polariton microcavities that can be achieved through the excitation of polariton condensates is intriguing. The condensation process is significantly altered in a lattice potential environment when compared to a planar microcavity. Therefore, an investigation of the polariton condensation process in a lattice with respect to the characteristics of the excitation laser, the exciton-photon detuning as well as the reduced trap distance that represents a key design parameter for polaritonic lattices was performed. Based on the demonstration of polariton condensation into multiple bands, the preferred condensation into a desired band was achieved by selecting the appropriate detuning. Additionally, a decreased condensation threshold in confined systems compared to a planar microcavity was revealed.
In chapter 5, the influence of the peculiar feature of flatbands arising in certain lattice geometries, such as the Lieb and Kagome lattices, on polaritons and polariton condensates was investigated. Deviations from a lattice simulator described by a tight binding model that is solely based on nearest neighbour coupling cause a remaining dispersiveness of the flatbands along certain directions of the Brillouin zone. Therefore, the influence of the reduced trap distance on the dispersiveness of the flatbands was investigated and precise technological control over the flatbands was demonstrated. As next-nearest neighbour coupling is reduced drastically by increasing the distance between the corresponding traps, increasing the reduced trap distance enables to tune the S flatbands of both Lieb and Kagome lattices from dispersive bands to flatbands with a bandwidth on the order of the polariton linewidth. Additionally to technological control over the band structures, the controlled excitation of large condensates, single compact localized state (CLS) condensates as well as the resonant excitation of polaritons in a Lieb flatband were demonstrated. Furthermore, selective condensation into flatbands was realised. This combination of technological and spectroscopic control illustrates the capabilities of polariton lattice simulators and was used to study the coherence of flatband polariton condensates. Here, the ability to tune the dispersiveness from a dispersive band to an almost perfect flatband in combination with the selectivity of the excitation is particularly valuable. By exciting large flatband condensates, the increasing degree of localisation to a CLS with decreasing dispersiveness was demonstrated by measurements of first order spatial coherence. Furthermore, the first order temporal coherence of CLS condensates was increased from τ = 68 ps for a dispersive flatband, a value typically achieved in high-quality microcavity samples, to a remarkable τ = 459 ps in a flatband with a dispersiveness below the polarion linewidth. Corresponding to this drastic increase of the first order coherence time, a decrease of the second order temporal coherence function from g(2)(τ =0) = 1.062 to g(2)(0) = 1.035 was observed. Next to laser-like, coherent emission, polariton condensates can form vortex lattices. In this work, two distinct vortex lattices that can form in polariton condensates in Kagome flatbands were revealed. Furthermore, chiral, superfluid edge transport was realised by breaking the spatial symmetry through a localised excitation spot. This chirality was related to a change in the vortex orientation at the edge of the lattice and thus opens the path towards further investigations of symmetry breaking and chiral superfluid transport in Kagome lattices.
Arguably the most influential concept in solid-state physics of the recent decades is the idea of topological order that has also provided a new degree of freedom to control the propagation of light. Therefore, in chapter 6, the interplay of topologically non-trivial band structures with polaritons, polariton condensates and lasing was emphasised. Firstly, a two-dimensional exciton-polariton topological insulator based on a honeycomb lattice was realised. Here, a topologically non-trivial band gap was opened at the Dirac points through a combination of TE-TM splitting of the photonic mode and Zeeman splitting of the excitonic mode. While the band gap is too small compared to the linewidth to be observed in the linear regime, the excitation of polariton condensates allowed to observe the characteristic, topologically protected, chiral edge modes that are robust against scattering at defects as well as lattice corners. This result represents a valuable step towards the investigation of non-linear and non-Hermitian topological physics, based on the inherent gain and loss of microcavities as well as the ability of polaritons to interact with each other. Apart from fundamental interest, the field of topological photonics is driven by the search of potential technological applications, where one direction is to advance the development of lasers. In this work, the starting point towards studying topological lasing was the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, since it combines a simple and well-understood geometry with a large topological gap. The coherence properties of the topological edge defect of an SSH chain was studied in detail, revealing a promising degree of second order temporal coherence of g(2)(0) = 1.07 for a microlaser with a diameter of only d = 3.5 µm. In the context of topological lasing, the idea of using a propagating, topologically protected mode to ensure coherent coupling of laser arrays is particularly promising. Here, a topologically non-trivial interface mode between the two distinct domains of the crystalline topological insulator (CTI) was realised. After establishing selective lasing from this mode, the coherence properties were studied and coherence of a full, hexagonal interface comprised of 30 vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was demonstrated. This result thus represents the first demonstration of a topological insulator VCSEL array, combining the compact size and convenient light collection of vertically emitting lasers with an in-plane topological protection.
Finally, in chapter 7, an approach towards engineering the band structures of Lieb and honeycomb lattices by unbalancing the eigenenergies of the sites within each unit cell was presented. For Lieb lattices, this technique opens up a path towards controlling the coupling of a flatband to dispersive bands and could enable a detailed study of the influence of this coupling on the polariton flatband states. In an unbalanced honeycomb lattice, a quantum valley Hall boundary mode between two distinct, unbalanced honeycomb domains with permuted sites in the unit cells was demonstrated. This boundary mode could serve as the foundation for the realisation of a polariton quantum valley Hall effect with a truly topologically protected spin based on vortex charges. Modifying polariton lattices by unbalancing the eigenenergies of the sites that comprise a unit cell was thus identified as an additional, promising path for the future development of polariton lattice simulators.

In dieser Arbeit werden Quantenpunkt-Speichertransistoren basierend auf modulationsdotierten GaAs/AlGaAs Heterostrukturen mit vorpositionierten InAs Quantenpunkten vorgestellt, welche in Abhängigkeit der Ladung auf den Quantenpunkten unterschiedliche Widerstände und Kapazitäten aufweisen. Diese Ladungsabhängigkeiten führen beim Anlegen von periodischen Spannungen zu charakteristischen, durch den Ursprung gehenden Hysteresen in der Strom-Spannungs- und der Ladungs-Spannungs-Kennlinie. Die ladungsabhängigen Widerstände und Kapazitäten ermöglichen die Realisierung von neuromorphen Operationen durch Nachahmung von synaptischen Funktionalitäten und arithmetischen Operationen durch Integration von Spannungs- und Lichtpulsen.

Despite its history of more than one hundred years, the phenomenon of
superconductivity has not lost any of its allure. During that time the concept
and perception of the superconducting state - both from an experimental and
theoretical point of view - has evolved in way that has
triggered increasing interest. What was initially believed to simply be the
disappearance of electrical resistivity, turned out to be a universal and
inevitable result of quantum statistics, characterized by many more
aspects apart from its zero resistivity. The insights of
BCS-theory eventually helped to uncover its deep connection to particle physics
and consequently led to the formulation of the Anderson-Higgs-mechanism. The
very core of this theory is the concept of gauge symmetry (breaking). Within the
framework of condensed-matter theory, gauge invariance is only one of several
symmetry groups which are crucial for the description and classification of
superconducting states. \\
In this thesis, we employ time-reversal, inversion, point group and spin
symmetries to investigate and derive possible Hamiltonians featuring spin-orbit
interaction in two and three spatial dimensions.
In particular, this thesis aims at a generalization of existing numerical
concepts to open up the path to spin-orbit coupled (non)centrosymmetric
superconductors in multi-orbital models.
This is done in a two-fold way: On the one hand, we formulate - based on the
Kohn-Luttinger effect - the perturbative renormalization group in the
weak-coupling limit. On the other hand, we define the spinful flow equations of
the effective action in the framework of functional renormalization, which is
valid for finite interaction strength as well. Both perturbative and functional
renormalization groups produce a low-energy effective (spinful) theory that
eventually gives rise to a particular superconducting state, which is investigated
on the level of the irreducible two-particle vertex. The symbiotic relationship
between both perturbative and functional renormalization can be traced back to
the fact that, while the perturbative renormalization at infinitesimal coupling
is only capable of dealing with the Cooper instability, the functional
renormalization can investigate a plethora of instabilities both in the
particle-particle and particle-hole channels. \\
Time-reversal and inversion are the two key symmetries, which are being used to
discriminate between two scenarios. If both time-reversal and inversion symmetry
are present, the Fermi surface will be two-fold degenerate and characterized by a
pseudospin degree of freedom. In contrast, if inversion symmetry is broken, the
Fermi surface will be spin-split and labeled by helicity. In both cases, we
construct the symmetry allowed states in the particle-particle as well as the
particle-hole channel. The methods presented are formally unified and implemented
in a modern object-oriented reusable and extendable C++ code.
This methodological implementation is employed to one member of both families of
pseudospin and helicity characterized systems. For the pseudospin case, we choose
the intriguing matter of strontium ruthenate, which has been heavily
investigated for already twenty-four years, but still keeps puzzling researchers.
Finally, as the helicity based application, we consider the oxide heterostructure
LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_{3}$, which became famous for its highly mobile two-
dimensional electron gas and is suspected to host topological superconductivity.

We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence and hydrodynamics to analyze the transport properties of \(2+1\) dimensional electron fluids. In this way, we use theoretical methods from both condensed matter and high-energy physics to derive tangible predictions that are directly verifiable in experiment.
The first research topic we consider is strongly-coupled electron fluids. Motivated by early results by Gurzhi on the transport properties of weakly coupled fluids, we consider whether similar properties are manifest in strongly coupled fluids. More specifically, we focus on the hydrodynamic tail of the Gurzhi effect: A decrease in fluid resistance with increasing temperature due to the formation of a Poiseuille flow of electrons in the sample. We show that the hydrodynamic tail of the Gurzhi effect is also realized in strongly coupled and fully relativistic fluids, but with modified quantitative features. Namely, strongly-coupled fluids always exhibit a smaller resistance than weakly coupled ones and are, thus, far more efficient conductors. We also suggest that the coupling dependence of the resistance can be used to measure the coupling strength of the fluid. In view of these measurements, we provide analytical results for the resistance as a function of the shear viscosity over entropy density \(\eta/s\) of the fluid. \(\eta/s\) is itself a known function of the coupling strength in the weak and infinite coupling limits.
In further analysis for strongly-coupled fluids, we propose a novel strongly coupled Dirac material based on a kagome lattice, Scandium-substituted Herbertsmithite (ScHb). The large coupling strength of this material, as well as its Dirac nature, provides us with theoretical and experimental access to non-perturbative relativistic and quantum critical physics. A highly suitable method for analyzing such a material's transport properties is the AdS/CFT correspondence. Concretely, using AdS/CFT we derive an estimate for ScHb's \(\eta/s\) and show that it takes a value much smaller than that observed in weakly coupled materials. In turn, the smallness of \(\eta/s\) implies that ScHb's Reynolds number, \(Re\), is large. In fact, \(Re\) is large enough for turbulence, the most prevalent feature of fluids in nature, to make its appearance for the first time in electronic fluids.
Switching gears, we proceed to the second research topic considered in this thesis: Weakly coupled parity-breaking electron fluids. More precisely, we analyze the quantitative and qualitative changes to the classical Hall effect, for electrons propagating hydrodynamically in a lead. Apart from the Lorentz force, a parity-breaking fluid's motion is also impacted by the Hall-viscous force; the shear-stress force induced by the Hall-viscosity. We show that the interplay of these two forces leads to a hydrodynamic Hall voltage with non-linear dependence on the magnetic field. More importantly, the Lorentz and Hall-viscous forces become equal at a non-vanishing magnetic field, leading to a trivial hydrodynamic Hall voltage. Moreover, for small magnetic fields we provide analytic results for the dependence of the hydrodynamic Hall voltage on all experimentally-tuned parameters of our simulations, such as temperature and density. These dependences, along with the zero of the hydrodynamic Hall voltage, are distinct features of hydrodynamic transport and can be used to verify our predictions in experiments.
Last but not least, we consider how a distinctly electronic property, spin, can be included into the hydrodynamic framework. In particular, we construct an effective action for non-dissipative spin hydrodynamics up to first order in a suitably defined derivative expansion. We also show that interesting spin-transport effects appear at second order in the derivative expansion. Namely, we show that the fluid's rotation polarizes its spin. This is the hydrodynamic manifestation of the Barnett effect and provides us with an example of hydrodynamic spintronics.
To conclude this thesis, we discuss several possible extensions of our research, as well as proposals for research in related directions.

Since the genesis of condensed matter physics, strongly correlated fermionic systems have shown a variety of fascinating properties and remain a vital topic in the field.
Such systems arise through electronic interaction, and despite decades of intensive research, no holistic approach to solving this problem has been found.
During that time, physicists have compiled a wealth of individual experimental and theoretical results, which together give an invaluable insight into these materials, and, in some instances, can explain correlated phenomena.
However, there are several systems that stubbornly refuse to fall completely in line with current theoretical descriptions, among them the high-\( T_c{}\) cuprates and heavy fermion compounds.
Although the two material classes have been around for the better part of the last 50 years, large portions of their respective phase diagram are still under intensive debate.
Recent experiments in several electron-doped cuprates compounds, e.g. neodymium cerium copper oxide (Nd\(_{2x}\)Ce\(_x\)CuO\(_4\)), reveal a charge ordering about an antiferromagnetic ground state.
So far, it has not been conclusively clarified how this intertwining of charge and spin polarization comes about and how it can be reconciled with a rigorous theoretical description.
The heavy-fermion semimetals, on the other hand, have enjoyed renewed scientific interest with the discovery of topological Kondo insulators, a new material class offering a unique interface of topology, symmetry breaking, and correlated phenomena. In this context, samarium hexaboride (SmB\(_6\)) has emerged as a prototypical system, which may feature a topological ground state.
In this thesis, we present a spin rotational invariant auxiliary particle approach to investigate the propensities of interacting electrons towards forming new states of order.
In particular, we study the onset of spin and charge order in high-\( T_c{}\) cuprate systems and Kondo lattices, as well as the interplay of magnetism and topology.
To that end, we use a sophisticated mean-field approximation of bosonic auxiliary particles augmented by a stability analysis of the saddle point via Gaussian fluctuations.
The latter enables the derivation of dynamic susceptibilities, which describe the response of the system under external fields and offer a direct comparison to experiments.
Both the mean-field and fluctuation formalisms require a numerical tool that is capable of extremizing the saddle point equations, on the one hand, and reliably solving a loop integral of the susceptibility-type, on the other.
A full, from scratch derivation of the formalism tailored towards a software implementation, is provided and pedagogically reviewed.
The auxiliary particle method allows for a rigorous description of incommensurate magnetic order and compares well to other established numerical and analytical techniques.
Within our analysis, we employ the two-dimensional one-band Hubbard as well as the periodic Anderson model as minimal Hamiltonians for the high-\( T_c{}\) cuprates and Kondo systems, respectively.
For the former, we observe a regime of intertwined charge- and spin-order in the electron-doped regime, which matches recent experimental observations in the cuprate material Nd\(_{2x}\)Ce\(_x\)CuO\(_4\).
Furthermore, we localize the emergence of a Kondo regime in the periodic Anderson model and establish the magnetic phase diagram of the two-band model for topological Kondo insulators.
The emerging antiferromagnetic ground state can be characterized by its topological properties and shows, for a non-trivial phase, topologically protected hinge modes.

This thesis focuses on investigating magneto-transport properties of a ferromagnetic topological insulator (V,Bi,Sb)2Te3. This material is most famously known for exhibiting the quantum anomalous Hall effect, a novel quantum state of matter that has opened up possibilities for potential applications in quantum metrology as a quantum standard of resistance, as well as for academic investigations into unusual magnetic properties and axion electrodynamics. All of those aspects are investigated in the thesis.

Magnetism is a phenomenon ubiquitously found in everyday life. Yet, together with superconductivity and superfluidity, it is among the few macroscopically realized quantum states. Although well-understood on a quasi-classical level, its microscopic description is still far from being solved. The interplay of strong interactions present in magnetic condensed-matter systems and the non-trivial commutator structure governing the underlying spin algebra prevents most conventional approaches in solid-state theory to be applied.
On the other hand, the quantum limit of magnetic systems is fertile land for the development of exotic phases of matter called spin-liquids. In these states, quantum fluctuations inhibit the formation of magnetic long-range order down to the lowest temperatures. From a theoretical point of view, spin-liquids open up the possibility to study their exotic properties, such as fractionalized excitations and emergent gauge fields. However, despite huge theoretical and experimental efforts, no material realizing spin-liquid properties has been unambiguously identified with a three-dimensional crystal structure. The search for such a realization is hindered by the inherent difficulty even for model calculations. As most numerical techniques are not applicable due to the interaction structure and dimensionality of these systems, a methodological gap has to be filled.
In this thesis, to fill this void, we employ the pseudo-fermion functional renormalization group (PFFRG), which provides a scheme to investigate ground state properties of quantum magnetic systems even in three spatial dimensions.
We report the status quo of this established method and extend it by alleviating some of its inherent approximations. To this end, we develop a multi-loop formulation of PFFRG, including hitherto neglected terms in the underlying flow equations consistently, rendering the outcome equivalent to a parquet approximation. As a necessary prerequisite, we also significantly improve the numerical accuracy of our implementation of the method by switching to a formulation respecting the asymptotic behavior of the vertex functions as well as employing state-of-the-art numerical algorithms tailored towards PFFRG. The resulting codebase was made publicly accessible in the open-source code PFFRGSolver.jl.
We subsequently apply the technique to both model systems and real materials. Augmented by a classical analysis of the respective models, we scan the phase diagram of the three-dimensional body-centered cubic lattice up to third-nearest neighbor coupling and the Pyrochlore lattice up to second-nearest neighbor. In both systems, we uncover in addition to the classically ordered phases, an extended parameter regime, where a quantum paramagnetic phase appears, giving rise to the possibility of a quantum spin liquid.
Additionally, we also use the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnet on the Pyrochlore lattice as well as the simple cubic lattice with first- and third-nearest neighbor couplings as a testbed for multi-loop PFFRG, demonstrating, that the inclusion of higher loop orders has quantitative effects in paramagnetic regimes and that the onset of order can be signaled by a lack of loop convergence.
Turning towards material realizations, we investigate the diamond lattice compound MnSc\(_2\)S\(_4\), explaining on grounds of ab initio couplings the emergence of a spiral spin liquid at low temperatures, but above the ordering transition.
In the Pyrochlore compound Lu\(_2\)Mo\(_2\)O\(_5\)N\(_2\), which is known to not magnetically order down to lowest temperatures, we predict a spin liquid state displaying a characteristic gearwheel pattern in the spin structure factor.