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This thesis focuses on investigating magneto-transport properties of a ferromagnetic topological insulator (V,Bi,Sb)2Te3. This material is most famously known for exhibiting the quantum anomalous Hall effect, a novel quantum state of matter that has opened up possibilities for potential applications in quantum metrology as a quantum standard of resistance, as well as for academic investigations into unusual magnetic properties and axion electrodynamics. All of those aspects are investigated in the thesis.

The fascination of microcavity exciton-polaritons (polaritons) rests upon the combination of advanced technological control over both the III-V semiconductor material platform as well as the precise spectroscopic access to polaritonic states, which provide access to the investigation of open questions and complex phenomena due to the inherent nonlinearity and direct spectroscopic observables such as energy-resolved real and Fourier space information, pseudospin and coherence. The focus of this work was to advance the research area of polariton lattice simulators with a particular emphasis on their lasing properties. Following the brief introduction into the fundamental physics of polariton lattices in chapter 2, important aspects of the sample fabrication as well as the Fourier spectroscopy techniques used to investigate various features of these lattices were summarized in chapter 3. Here, the implementation of a spatial light modulator for advanced excitation schemes was presented.
At the foundation of this work is the capability to confine polaritons into micropillars or microtraps resulting in discrete energy levels. By arranging these pillars or traps into various lattice geometries and ensuring coupling between neighbouring sites, polaritonic band structures were engineered. In chapter 4, the formation of a band structure was visualised in detail by investigating ribbons of honeycomb lattices. Here, the transition of the discrete energy levels of a single chain of microtraps to the fully developed band structure of a honeycomb lattice was observed. This study allows to design the size of individual domains in more complicated lattice geometries such that a description using band structures becomes feasible, as it revealed that a width of just six unit cells is sufficient to reproduce all characteristic features of the S band of a honeycomb lattice. In particular in the context of potential technological applications in the realms of lasing, the laser-like, coherent emission from polariton microcavities that can be achieved through the excitation of polariton condensates is intriguing. The condensation process is significantly altered in a lattice potential environment when compared to a planar microcavity. Therefore, an investigation of the polariton condensation process in a lattice with respect to the characteristics of the excitation laser, the exciton-photon detuning as well as the reduced trap distance that represents a key design parameter for polaritonic lattices was performed. Based on the demonstration of polariton condensation into multiple bands, the preferred condensation into a desired band was achieved by selecting the appropriate detuning. Additionally, a decreased condensation threshold in confined systems compared to a planar microcavity was revealed.
In chapter 5, the influence of the peculiar feature of flatbands arising in certain lattice geometries, such as the Lieb and Kagome lattices, on polaritons and polariton condensates was investigated. Deviations from a lattice simulator described by a tight binding model that is solely based on nearest neighbour coupling cause a remaining dispersiveness of the flatbands along certain directions of the Brillouin zone. Therefore, the influence of the reduced trap distance on the dispersiveness of the flatbands was investigated and precise technological control over the flatbands was demonstrated. As next-nearest neighbour coupling is reduced drastically by increasing the distance between the corresponding traps, increasing the reduced trap distance enables to tune the S flatbands of both Lieb and Kagome lattices from dispersive bands to flatbands with a bandwidth on the order of the polariton linewidth. Additionally to technological control over the band structures, the controlled excitation of large condensates, single compact localized state (CLS) condensates as well as the resonant excitation of polaritons in a Lieb flatband were demonstrated. Furthermore, selective condensation into flatbands was realised. This combination of technological and spectroscopic control illustrates the capabilities of polariton lattice simulators and was used to study the coherence of flatband polariton condensates. Here, the ability to tune the dispersiveness from a dispersive band to an almost perfect flatband in combination with the selectivity of the excitation is particularly valuable. By exciting large flatband condensates, the increasing degree of localisation to a CLS with decreasing dispersiveness was demonstrated by measurements of first order spatial coherence. Furthermore, the first order temporal coherence of CLS condensates was increased from τ = 68 ps for a dispersive flatband, a value typically achieved in high-quality microcavity samples, to a remarkable τ = 459 ps in a flatband with a dispersiveness below the polarion linewidth. Corresponding to this drastic increase of the first order coherence time, a decrease of the second order temporal coherence function from g(2)(τ =0) = 1.062 to g(2)(0) = 1.035 was observed. Next to laser-like, coherent emission, polariton condensates can form vortex lattices. In this work, two distinct vortex lattices that can form in polariton condensates in Kagome flatbands were revealed. Furthermore, chiral, superfluid edge transport was realised by breaking the spatial symmetry through a localised excitation spot. This chirality was related to a change in the vortex orientation at the edge of the lattice and thus opens the path towards further investigations of symmetry breaking and chiral superfluid transport in Kagome lattices.
Arguably the most influential concept in solid-state physics of the recent decades is the idea of topological order that has also provided a new degree of freedom to control the propagation of light. Therefore, in chapter 6, the interplay of topologically non-trivial band structures with polaritons, polariton condensates and lasing was emphasised. Firstly, a two-dimensional exciton-polariton topological insulator based on a honeycomb lattice was realised. Here, a topologically non-trivial band gap was opened at the Dirac points through a combination of TE-TM splitting of the photonic mode and Zeeman splitting of the excitonic mode. While the band gap is too small compared to the linewidth to be observed in the linear regime, the excitation of polariton condensates allowed to observe the characteristic, topologically protected, chiral edge modes that are robust against scattering at defects as well as lattice corners. This result represents a valuable step towards the investigation of non-linear and non-Hermitian topological physics, based on the inherent gain and loss of microcavities as well as the ability of polaritons to interact with each other. Apart from fundamental interest, the field of topological photonics is driven by the search of potential technological applications, where one direction is to advance the development of lasers. In this work, the starting point towards studying topological lasing was the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, since it combines a simple and well-understood geometry with a large topological gap. The coherence properties of the topological edge defect of an SSH chain was studied in detail, revealing a promising degree of second order temporal coherence of g(2)(0) = 1.07 for a microlaser with a diameter of only d = 3.5 µm. In the context of topological lasing, the idea of using a propagating, topologically protected mode to ensure coherent coupling of laser arrays is particularly promising. Here, a topologically non-trivial interface mode between the two distinct domains of the crystalline topological insulator (CTI) was realised. After establishing selective lasing from this mode, the coherence properties were studied and coherence of a full, hexagonal interface comprised of 30 vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was demonstrated. This result thus represents the first demonstration of a topological insulator VCSEL array, combining the compact size and convenient light collection of vertically emitting lasers with an in-plane topological protection.
Finally, in chapter 7, an approach towards engineering the band structures of Lieb and honeycomb lattices by unbalancing the eigenenergies of the sites within each unit cell was presented. For Lieb lattices, this technique opens up a path towards controlling the coupling of a flatband to dispersive bands and could enable a detailed study of the influence of this coupling on the polariton flatband states. In an unbalanced honeycomb lattice, a quantum valley Hall boundary mode between two distinct, unbalanced honeycomb domains with permuted sites in the unit cells was demonstrated. This boundary mode could serve as the foundation for the realisation of a polariton quantum valley Hall effect with a truly topologically protected spin based on vortex charges. Modifying polariton lattices by unbalancing the eigenenergies of the sites that comprise a unit cell was thus identified as an additional, promising path for the future development of polariton lattice simulators.