## 004 Datenverarbeitung; Informatik

Given points in the plane, connect them using minimum ink. Though the task seems simple, it turns out to be very time consuming. In fact, scientists believe that computers cannot efficiently solve it. So, do we have to resign? This book examines such NP-hard network-design problems, from connectivity problems in graphs to polygonal drawing problems on the plane. First, we observe why it is so hard to optimally solve these problems. Then, we go over to attack them anyway. We develop fast algorithms that find approximate solutions that are very close to the optimal ones. Hence, connecting points with slightly more ink is not hard.

In many cases, problems, data, or information can be modeled as graphs. Graphs can be used as a tool for modeling in any case where connections between distinguishable objects occur. Any graph consists of a set of objects, called vertices, and a set of connections, called edges, such that any edge connects a pair of vertices. For example, a social network can be modeled by a graph by
transforming the users of the network into vertices and friendship relations between users into edges. Also physical networks like computer networks or transportation networks, for example, the metro network of a city, can be seen as graphs.
For making graphs and, thereby, the data that is modeled, well-understandable for users, we need a visualization. Graph drawing deals with algorithms for visualizing graphs. In this thesis, especially the use of crossings and curves is investigated for graph drawing problems under additional constraints. The constraints that occur in the problems investigated in this thesis especially restrict the positions of (a part of) the vertices; this is done either as a hard constraint or as an optimization criterion.

We consider competitive location problems where two competing providers place their facilities sequentially and users can decide between the competitors. We assume that both competitors act non-cooperatively and aim at maximizing their own benefits. We investigate the complexity and approximability of such problems on graphs, in particular on simple graph classes such as trees and paths. We also develop fast algorithms for single competitive location problems where each provider places a single facilty. Voting location, in contrast, aims at identifying locations that meet social criteria. The provider wants to satisfy the users (customers) of the facility to be opened. In general, there is no location that is favored by all users. Therefore, a satisfactory compromise has to be found. To this end, criteria arising from voting theory are considered. The solution of the location problem is understood as the winner of a virtual election among the users of the facilities, in which the potential locations play the role of the candidates and the users represent the voters. Competitive and voting location problems turn out to be closely related.