## Institut für Mathematik

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To study coisotropic reduction in the context of deformation quantization we introduce constraint manifolds and constraint algebras as the basic objects encoding the additional information needed to define a reduction. General properties of various categories of constraint objects and their compatiblity with reduction are examined. A constraint Serre-Swan theorem, identifying constraint vector bundles with certain finitely generated projective constraint modules, as well as a constraint symbol calculus are proved. After developing the general deformation theory of constraint algebras, including constraint Hochschild cohomology and constraint differential graded Lie algebras, the second constraint Hochschild cohomology for the constraint algebra of functions on a constraint flat space is computed.

The aim of this work is to provide further insight into the qualitative behavior of mechanical systems that are well described by Lennard-Jones type interactions on an atomistic scale. By means of Gamma-convergence techniques, we study the continuum limit of one-dimensional chains of atoms with finite range interactions of Lennard-Jones type, including the classical Lennard-Jones potentials. So far, explicit formula for the continuum limit were only available for the case of nearest and next-to-nearest neighbour interactions. In this work, we provide an explicit expression for the continuum limit in the case of finite range interactions. The obtained homogenization formula is given by the convexification of a Cauchy-Born energy density. Furthermore, we study rescaled energies in which bulk and surface contributions scale in the same way. The related discrete-to-continuum limit yields a rigorous derivation of a one-dimensional version of Griffith' fracture energy and thus generalizes earlier derivations for nearest and next-to-nearest neighbors to the case of finite range interactions. A crucial ingredient to our proofs is a novel decomposition of the energy that allows for re fined estimates.

In this paper, we prove an asymptotic formula for the sum of the values of the periodic zeta-function at the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta-function (up to some height) which are symmetrical on the real line and the critical line. This is an extension of the previous results due to Garunkštis, Kalpokas, and, more recently, Sowa. Whereas Sowa's approach was assuming the yet unproved Riemann hypothesis, our result holds unconditionally.

We consider the Bathnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model, an approximation of the Boltzmann equation, describing the time evolution of a single momoatomic rarefied gas and satisfying the same two main properties (conservation properties and entropy inequality). However, in practical applications, one often has to deal with two additional physical issues. First, a gas often does not consist of only one species, but it consists of a mixture of different species. Second, the particles can store energy not only in translational degrees of freedom but also in internal degrees of freedom such as rotations or vibrations (polyatomic molecules). Therefore, here, we will present recent BGK models for gas mixtures for mono- and polyatomic particles and the existing mathematical theory for these models.

Chemotaxis describes the movement of an organism, such as single or multi-cellular organisms and bacteria, in response to a chemical stimulus. Two widely used models to describe the phenomenon are the celebrated Keller–Segel equation and a chemotaxis kinetic equation. These two equations describe the organism's movement at the macro- and mesoscopic level, respectively, and are asymptotically equivalent in the parabolic regime. The way in which the organism responds to a chemical stimulus is embedded in the diffusion/advection coefficients of the Keller–Segel equation or the turning kernel of the chemotaxis kinetic equation. Experiments are conducted to measure the time dynamics of the organisms' population level movement when reacting to certain stimulation. From this, one infers the chemotaxis response, which constitutes an inverse problem. In this paper, we discuss the relation between both the macro- and mesoscopic inverse problems, each of which is associated with two different forward models. The discussion is presented in the Bayesian framework, where the posterior distribution of the turning kernel of the organism population is sought. We prove the asymptotic equivalence of the two posterior distributions.

Our starting point is the Jacobsthal function \(j(m)\), defined for each positive integer \(m\) as the smallest number such that every \(j(m)\) consecutive integers contain at least one integer relatively prime to \(m\). It has turned out that improving on upper bounds for \(j(m)\) would also lead to advances in understanding the distribution of prime numbers among arithmetic progressions. If \(P_r\) denotes the product of the first \(r\) prime numbers, then a conjecture of Montgomery states that \(j(P_r)\) can be bounded from above by \(r (\log r)^2\) up to some constant factor. However, the until now very promising sieve methods seem to have reached a limit here, and the main goal of this work is to develop other combinatorial methods in hope of coming a bit closer to prove the conjecture of Montgomery. Alongside, we solve a problem of Recamán about the maximum possible length among arithmetic progressions in the least (positive) reduced residue system modulo \(m\). Lastly, we turn towards three additive representation functions as introduced by Erdős, Sárközy and Sós who studied their surprising different monotonicity behavior. By an alternative approach, we answer a question of Sárközy and demostrate that another conjecture does not hold.

Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich explorativ mit Metakognition beim Umgang mit Mathematik. Aufbauend auf der vorgestellten Forschungsliteratur wird der Einsatz von Metakognition im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie bei Studienanfänger_innen aus verschiedenen Mathematik-(Lehramts-)Studiengängen dokumentiert. Unter Verwendung der Qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse nach Mayring erfolgt die Etablierung eines Kategoriensystems für den Begriff Metakognition im Hinblick auf den Einsatz in der Mathematik, das bisherige Systematisierungen erweitert. Schließlich wird der Einsatz der entsprechenden metakognitiven Aspekte am Beispiel verschiedener Begriffe und Verfahren aus dem Analysis-Unterricht exemplarisch aufgezeigt.

Optimization problems with composite functions deal with the minimization of the sum
of a smooth function and a convex nonsmooth function. In this thesis several numerical
methods for solving such problems in finite-dimensional spaces are discussed, which are
based on proximity operators.
After some basic results from convex and nonsmooth analysis are summarized, a first-order
method, the proximal gradient method, is presented and its convergence properties are
discussed in detail. Known results from the literature are summarized and supplemented by
additional ones. Subsequently, the main part of the thesis is the derivation of two methods
which, in addition, make use of second-order information and are based on proximal Newton
and proximal quasi-Newton methods, respectively. The difference between the two methods
is that the first one uses a classical line search, while the second one uses a regularization
parameter instead. Both techniques lead to the advantage that, in contrast to many similar
methods, in the respective detailed convergence analysis global convergence to stationary
points can be proved without any restricting precondition. Furthermore, comprehensive
results show the local convergence properties as well as convergence rates of these algorithms,
which are based on rather weak assumptions. Also a method for the solution of the arising
proximal subproblems is investigated.
In addition, the thesis contains an extensive collection of application examples and a detailed
discussion of the related numerical results.

A sequentialquadratic Hamiltonian schemefor solving open-loop differential Nash games is proposed and investigated. This method is formulated in the framework of the Pontryagin maximum principle and represents an efficient and robust extension of the successive approximations strategy for solving optimal control problems. Theoretical results are presented that prove the well-posedness of the proposed scheme, and results of numerical experiments are reported that successfully validate its computational performance.

Risk measures are commonly used to prepare for a prospective occurrence of an adverse event. If we are concerned with discrete risk phenomena such as counts of natural disasters, counts of infections by a serious disease, or counts of certain economic events, then the required risk forecasts are to be computed for an underlying count process. In practice, however, the discrete nature of count data is sometimes ignored and risk forecasts are calculated based on Gaussian time series models. But even if methods from count time series analysis are used in an adequate manner, the performance of risk forecasting is affected by estimation uncertainty as well as certain discreteness phenomena. To get a thorough overview of the aforementioned issues in risk forecasting of count processes, a comprehensive simulation study was done considering a broad variety of risk measures and count time series models. It becomes clear that Gaussian approximate risk forecasts substantially distort risk assessment and, thus, should be avoided. In order to account for the apparent estimation uncertainty in risk forecasting, we use bootstrap approaches for count time series. The relevance and the application of the proposed approaches are illustrated by real data examples about counts of storm surges and counts of financial transactions.