## Institut für Mathematik

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A new approach to modelling pedestrians' avoidance dynamics based on a Fokker–Planck (FP) Nash game framework is presented. In this framework, two interacting pedestrians are considered, whose motion variability is modelled through the corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) governed by FP equations. Based on these equations, a Nash differential game is formulated where the game strategies represent controls aiming at avoidance by minimizing appropriate collision cost functionals. The existence of Nash equilibria solutions is proved and characterized as a solution to an optimal control problem that is solved numerically. Results of numerical experiments are presented that successfully compare the computed Nash equilibria to the output of real experiments (conducted with humans) for four test cases.

This thesis deals with a new so-called sequential quadratic Hamiltonian (SQH) iterative scheme to solve optimal control problems with differential models and cost functionals ranging from smooth to discontinuous and non-convex. This scheme is based on the Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP) that provides necessary optimality conditions for an optimal solution. In this framework, a Hamiltonian function is defined that attains its minimum pointwise at the optimal solution of the corresponding optimal control problem. In the SQH scheme, this Hamiltonian function is augmented by a quadratic penalty term consisting of the current control function and the control function from the previous iteration. The heart of the SQH scheme is to minimize this augmented Hamiltonian function pointwise in order to determine a control update. Since the PMP does not require any differ- entiability with respect to the control argument, the SQH scheme can be used to solve optimal control problems with both smooth and non-convex or even discontinuous cost functionals. The main achievement of the thesis is the formulation of a robust and efficient SQH scheme and a framework in which the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme can be carried out. In this framework, convergence of the scheme means that the calculated solution fulfills the PMP condition. The governing differential models of the considered optimal control problems are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). In the PDE case, elliptic and parabolic equations as well as the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation are considered. For both the ODE and the PDE cases, assumptions are formulated for which it can be proved that a solution to an optimal control problem has to fulfill the PMP. The obtained results are essential for the discussion of the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme. This analysis has two parts. The first one is the well-posedness of the scheme which means that all steps of the scheme can be carried out and provide a result in finite time. The second part part is the PMP consistency of the solution. This means that the solution of the SQH scheme fulfills the PMP conditions. In the ODE case, the following results are obtained that state well-posedness of the SQH scheme and the PMP consistency of the corresponding solution. Lemma 7 states the existence of a pointwise minimum of the augmented Hamiltonian. Lemma 11 proves the existence of a weight of the quadratic penalty term such that the minimization of the corresponding augmented Hamiltonian results in a control updated that reduces the value of the cost functional. Lemma 12 states that the SQH scheme stops if an iterate is PMP optimal. Theorem 13 proves the cost functional reducing properties of the SQH control updates. The main result is given in Theorem 14, which states the pointwise convergence of the SQH scheme towards a PMP consistent solution. In this ODE framework, the SQH method is applied to two optimal control problems. The first one is an optimal quantum control problem where it is shown that the SQH method converges much faster to an optimal solution than a globalized Newton method. The second optimal control problem is an optimal tumor treatment problem with a system of coupled highly non-linear state equations that describe the tumor growth. It is shown that the framework in which the convergence of the SQH scheme is proved is applicable for this highly non-linear case. Next, the case of PDE control problems is considered. First a general framework is discussed in which a solution to the corresponding optimal control problem fulfills the PMP conditions. In this case, many theoretical estimates are presented in Theorem 59 and Theorem 64 to prove in particular the essential boundedness of the state and adjoint variables. The steps for the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme are analogous to that of the ODE case and result in Theorem 27 that states the PMP consistency of the solution obtained with the SQH scheme. This framework is applied to different elliptic and parabolic optimal control problems, including linear and bilinear control mechanisms, as well as non-linear state equations. Moreover, the SQH method is discussed for solving a state-constrained optimal control problem in an augmented formulation. In this case, it is shown in Theorem 30 that for increasing the weight of the augmentation term, which penalizes the violation of the state constraint, the measure of this state constraint violation by the corresponding solution converges to zero. Furthermore, an optimal control problem with a non-smooth L\(^1\)-tracking term and a non-smooth state equation is investigated. For this purpose, an adjoint equation is defined and the SQH method is used to solve the corresponding optimal control problem. The final part of this thesis is devoted to a class of FP models related to specific stochastic processes. The discussion starts with a focus on random walks where also jumps are included. This framework allows a derivation of a discrete FP model corresponding to a continuous FP model with jumps and boundary conditions ranging from absorbing to totally reflecting. This discussion allows the consideration of the drift-control resulting from an anisotropic probability of the steps of the random walk. Thereafter, in the PMP framework, two drift-diffusion processes and the corresponding FP models with two different control strategies for an optimal control problem with an expectation functional are considered. In the first strategy, the controls depend on time and in the second one, the controls depend on space and time. In both cases a solution to the corresponding optimal control problem is characterized with the PMP conditions, stated in Theorem 48 and Theorem 49. The well-posedness of the SQH scheme is shown in both cases and further conditions are discussed that ensure the convergence of the SQH scheme to a PMP consistent solution. The case of a space and time dependent control strategy results in a special structure of the corresponding PMP conditions that is exploited in another solution method, the so-called direct Hamiltonian (DH) method.

A mathematical optimal-control tumor therapy framework consisting of radio- and anti-angiogenesis control strategies that are included in a tumor growth model is investigated. The governing system, resulting from the combination of two well established models, represents the differential constraint of a non-smooth optimal control problem that aims at reducing the volume of the tumor while keeping the radio- and anti-angiogenesis chemical dosage to a minimum. Existence of optimal solutions is proved and necessary conditions are formulated in terms of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Based on this principle, a so-called sequential quadratic Hamiltonian (SQH) method is discussed and benchmarked with an “interior point optimizer―a mathematical programming language” (IPOPT-AMPL) algorithm. Results of numerical experiments are presented that successfully validate the SQH solution scheme. Further, it is shown how to choose the optimisation weights in order to obtain treatment functions that successfully reduce the tumor volume to zero.

The work at hand discusses various universality results for locally univalent and conformal metrics.
In Chapter 2 several interesting approximation results are discussed. Runge-type Theorems for holomorphic and meromorphic locally univalent functions are shown. A well-known local approximation theorem for harmonic functions due to Keldysh is generalized to solutions of the curvature equation.
In Chapter 3 and 4 these approximation theorems are used to establish universality results for locally univalent functions and conformal metrics. In particular locally univalent analogues for well-known universality results due Birkhoff, Seidel & Walsh and Heins are shown.

Statistical Procedures for modelling a random phenomenon heavily depend on the choice of a certain family of probability distributions. Frequently, this choice is governed by a good mathematical feasibility, but disregards that some distribution properties may contradict reality. At most, the choosen distribution may be considered as an approximation. The present thesis starts with a construction of distributions, which uses solely available information and yields distributions having greatest uncertainty in the sense of the maximum entropy principle. One of such distributions is the monotonic distribution, which is solely determined by its support and the mean. Although classical frequentist statistics provides estimation procedures which may incorporate prior information, such procedures are rarely considered. A general frequentist scheme for the construction of shortest confidence intervals for distribution parameters under prior information is presented. In particular, the scheme is used for establishing confidence intervals for the mean of the monotonic distribution and compared to classical procedures. Additionally, an approximative procedure for the upper bound of the support of the monotonic distribution is proposed. A core purpose of auditing sampling is the determination of confidence intervals for the mean of zero-inflated populations. The monotonic distribution is used for modelling such a population and is utilised for the procedure of a confidence interval under prior information for the mean. The results are compared to two-sided intervals of Stringer-type.

Lagrange Multiplier Methods for Constrained Optimization and Variational Problems in Banach Spaces
(2018)

This thesis is concerned with a class of general-purpose algorithms for constrained minimization problems, variational inequalities, and quasi-variational inequalities in Banach spaces.
A substantial amount of background material from Banach space theory, convex analysis, variational analysis, and optimization theory is presented, including some results which are refinements of those existing in the literature. This basis is used to formulate an augmented Lagrangian algorithm with multiplier safeguarding for the solution of constrained optimization problems in Banach spaces. The method is analyzed in terms of local and global convergence, and many popular problem classes such as nonlinear programming, semidefinite programming, and function space optimization are shown to be included as special cases of the general setting.
The algorithmic framework is then extended to variational and quasi-variational inequalities, which include, by extension, Nash and generalized Nash equilibrium problems. For these problem classes, the convergence is analyzed in detail. The thesis then presents a rich collection of application examples for all problem classes, including implementation details and numerical results.

This thesis discusses and proposes a solution for one problem arising from deformation quantization:
Having constructed the quantization of a classical system, one would like to understand its mathematical properties (of both the classical and quantum system). Especially if both systems are described by ∗-algebras over the field of complex numbers, this means to understand the properties of certain ∗-algebras:
What are their representations? What are the properties of these representations? How
can the states be described in these representations? How can the spectrum of the observables be
described?
In order to allow for a sufficiently general treatment of these questions, the concept of abstract O ∗-algebras is introduced. Roughly speaking, these are ∗ -algebras together with a cone of positive linear functionals on them (e.g. the continuous ones if one starts with a ∗-algebra that is endowed with a well-behaved topology). This language is then applied to two examples from deformation quantization, which will be studied in great detail.

In this thesis stability and robustness properties of systems of functional differential equations which dynamics depends on the maximum of a solution over a prehistory time interval is studied. Max-operator is analyzed and it is proved that due to its presence such kind of systems are particular case of state dependent delay differential equations with piecewise continuous delay function. They are nonlinear, infinite-dimensional and may reduce to one-dimensional along its solution. Stability analysis with respect to input is accomplished by trajectory estimate and via averaging method. Numerical method is proposed.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of canaloplasty and trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma.
Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included 62 patients who randomly received trabeculectomy (n = 32) or canaloplasty (n = 30) and were followed up prospectively for 2 years. Primary endpoint was complete (without medication) and qualified success (with or without medication) defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) of ≤18 mmHg (definition 1) or IOP ≤21 mmHg and ≥20% IOP reduction (definition 2), IOP ≥5 mmHg, no vision loss and no further glaucoma surgery. Secondary endpoints were the absolute IOP reduction, visual acuity, medication, complications and second surgeries.
Results: Surgical treatment significantly reduced IOP in both groups (p < 0.001). Complete success was achieved in 74.2% and 39.1% (definition 1, p = 0.01), and 67.7% and 39.1% (definition 2, p = 0.04) after 2 years in the trabeculectomy and canaloplasty group, respectively. Mean absolute IOP reduction was 10.8 ± 6.9 mmHg in the trabeculectomy and 9.3 ± 5.7 mmHg in the canaloplasty group after 2 years (p = 0.47). Mean IOP was 11.5 ± 3.4 mmHg in the trabeculectomy and 14.4 ± 4.2 mmHg in the canaloplasty group after 2 years. Following trabeculectomy, complications were more frequent including hypotony (37.5%), choroidal detachment (12.5%) and elevated IOP (25.0%).
Conclusions: Trabeculectomy is associated with a stronger IOP reduction and less need for medication at the cost of a higher rate of complications. If target pressure is attainable by moderate IOP reduction, canaloplasty may be considered for its relative ease of postoperative care and lack of complications.