## Institut für Mathematik

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The core diagram of a double Lie algebroid consists of the core of the double Lie algebroid, together with the two core-anchor maps to the sides of the double Lie algebroid. If these two core-anchors are surjective, then the double Lie algebroid and its core diagram are called transitive. This paper establishes an equivalence between transitive double Lie algebroids, and transitive core diagrams over a fixed base manifold. In other words, it proves that a transitive double Lie algebroid is completely determined by its core diagram.
The comma double Lie algebroid associated to a morphism of Lie algebroids is defined. If the latter morphism is one of the core-anchors of a transitive core diagram, then the comma double algebroid can be quotiented out by the second core-anchor, yielding a transitive double Lie algebroid, which is the one that is equivalent to the transitive core diagram.
Brown's and Mackenzie's equivalence of transitive core diagrams (of Lie groupoids) with transitive double Lie groupoids is then used in order to show that a transitive double Lie algebroid with integrable sides and core is automatically integrable to a transitive double Lie groupoid.

The article deals with the pedagogical content knowledge of mathematical modelling as part of the professional competence of pre-service teachers. With the help of a test developed for this purpose from a conceptual model, we examine whether this pedagogical content knowledge can be promoted in its different facets—especially knowledge about modelling tasks and about interventions—by suitable university seminars. For this purpose, the test was administered to three groups in a seminar for the teaching of mathematical modelling: (1) to those respondents who created their own modelling tasks for use with students, (2) to those trained to intervene in mathematical modelling processes, and (3) participating students who are not required to address mathematical modelling. The findings of the study—based on variance analysis—indicate that certain facets (knowledge of modelling tasks, modelling processes, and interventions) have increased significantly in both experimental groups but to varying degrees. By contrast, pre-service teachers in the control group demonstrated no significant change to their level of pedagogical content knowledge.

Optimization problems with composite functions consist of an objective function which is the sum of a smooth and a (convex) nonsmooth term. This particular structure is exploited by the class of proximal gradient methods and some of their generalizations like proximal Newton and quasi-Newton methods. The current literature on these classes of methods almost exclusively considers the case where also the smooth term is convex. Here we present a globalized proximal Newton-type method which allows the smooth term to be nonconvex. The method is shown to have nice global and local convergence properties, and some numerical results indicate that this method is very promising also from a practical point of view.

Physical regimes characterized by low Mach numbers and steep stratifications pose severe challenges to standard finite volume methods. We present three new methods specifically designed to navigate these challenges by being both low Mach compliant and well-balanced. These properties are crucial for numerical methods to efficiently and accurately compute solutions in the regimes considered.
First, we concentrate on the construction of an approximate Riemann solver within Godunov-type finite volume methods. A new relaxation system gives rise to a two-speed relaxation solver for the Euler equations with gravity. Derived from fundamental mathematical principles, this solver reduces the artificial dissipation in the subsonic regime and preserves hydrostatic equilibria. The solver is particularly stable as it satisfies a discrete entropy inequality, preserves positivity of density and internal energy, and suppresses checkerboard modes.
The second scheme is designed to solve the equations of ideal MHD and combines different approaches. In order to deal with low Mach numbers, it makes use of a low-dissipation version of the HLLD solver and a partially implicit time discretization to relax the CFL time step constraint. A Deviation Well-Balancing method is employed to preserve a priori known magnetohydrostatic equilibria and thereby reduces the magnitude of spatial discretization errors in strongly stratified setups.
The third scheme relies on an IMEX approach based on a splitting of the MHD equations. The slow scale part of the system is discretized by a time-explicit Godunov-type method, whereas the fast scale part is discretized implicitly by central finite differences. Numerical dissipation terms and CFL time step restriction of the method depend solely on the slow waves of the explicit part, making the method particularly suited for subsonic regimes. Deviation Well-Balancing ensures the preservation of a priori known magnetohydrostatic equilibria.
The three schemes are applied to various numerical experiments for the compressible Euler and ideal MHD equations, demonstrating their ability to accurately simulate flows in regimes with low Mach numbers and strong stratification even on coarse grids.

Coisotropic algebras consist of triples of algebras for which a reduction can be defined and unify in a very algebraic fashion coisotropic reduction in several settings. In this paper, we study the theory of (formal) deformation of coisotropic algebras showing that deformations are governed by suitable coisotropic DGLAs. We define a deformation functor and prove that it commutes with reduction. Finally, we study the obstructions to existence and uniqueness of coisotropic algebras and present some geometric examples.

The focus of this thesis is on analysing a linear stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) with a bounded domain. The first part of the thesis commences with an examination of a one-dimensional SPDE. In this context, we construct estimators for the parameters of a parabolic SPDE based on discrete observations of a solution in time and space on a bounded domain. We establish central limit theorems for a high-frequency asymptotic regime, showing substantially smaller asymptotic variances compared to existing estimation methods. Moreover, asymptotic confidence intervals are directly feasible. Our approach builds upon realized volatilities and their asymptotic illustration as the response of a log-linear model with a spatial explanatory variable. This yields efficient estimators based on realized volatilities with optimal rates of convergence and minimal variances. We demonstrate our results by Monte Carlo simulations.
Extending this framework, we analyse a second-order SPDE model in multiple space dimensions in the second part of this thesis and develop estimators for the parameters of this model based on discrete observations in time and space on a bounded domain. While parameter estimation for one and two spatial dimensions was established in recent literature, this is the first work that generalizes the theory to a general, multi-dimensional framework. Our methodology enables the construction of an oracle estimator for volatility within the underlying model. For proving central limit theorems, we use a high-frequency observation scheme. To showcase our results, we conduct a Monte Carlo simulation, highlighting the advantages of our novel approach in a multi-dimensional context.

In this thesis, a variety of Fokker--Planck (FP) optimal control problems are investigated. Main emphasis is put on a first-- and second--order analysis of different optimal control problems, characterizing optimal controls, establishing regularity results for optimal controls, and providing a numerical analysis for a Galerkin--based numerical scheme.
The Fokker--Planck equation is a partial differential equation (PDE) of linear parabolic type deeply connected to the theory of stochastic processes and stochastic differential equations. In essence, it describes the evolution over time of the probability distribution of the state of an object or system of objects under the influence of both deterministic and stochastic forces.
The FP equation is a cornerstone in understanding and modeling phenomena ranging from the diffusion and motion of molecules in a fluid to the fluctuations in financial markets.
Two different types of optimal control problems are analyzed in this thesis. On the one hand, Fokker--Planck ensemble optimal control problems are considered that have a wide range of applications in controlling a system of multiple non--interacting objects. In this framework, the goal is to collectively drive each object into a desired state.
On the other hand, tracking--type control problems are investigated, commonly used in parameter identification problems or stemming from the field of inverse problems.
In this framework, the aim is to determine certain parameters or functions of the FP equation, such that the resulting probability distribution function takes a desired form, possibly observed by measurements.
In both cases, we consider FP models where the control functions are part of the drift, arising only from the deterministic forces of the system. Therefore, the FP optimal control problem has a bilinear control structure.
Box constraints on the controls may be present, and the focus is on time--space dependent controls for ensemble--type problems and on only time--dependent controls for tracking--type optimal control problems.
In the first chapter of the thesis, a proof of the connection between the FP equation and stochastic differential equations is provided. Additionally, stochastic optimal control problems, aiming to minimize an expected cost value, are introduced, and the corresponding formulation within a deterministic FP control framework is established.
For the analysis of this PDE--constrained optimal control problem, the existence, and regularity of solutions to the FP problem are investigated. New $L^\infty$--estimates for solutions are established for low space dimensions under mild assumptions on the drift. Furthermore, based on the theory of Bessel potential spaces, new smoothness properties are derived for solutions to the FP problem in the case of only time--dependent controls. Due to these properties, the control--to--state map, which associates the control functions with the corresponding solution of the FP problem, is well--defined, Fréchet differentiable and compact for suitable Lebesgue spaces or Sobolev spaces.
The existence of optimal controls is proven under various assumptions on the space of admissible controls and objective functionals. First--order optimality conditions are derived using the adjoint system. The resulting characterization of optimal controls is exploited to achieve higher regularity of optimal controls, as well as their state and co--state functions.
Since the FP optimal control problem is non--convex due to its bilinear structure, a first--order analysis should be complemented by a second--order analysis.
Therefore, a second--order analysis for the ensemble--type control problem in the case of $H^1$--controls in time and space is performed, and sufficient second--order conditions are provided. Analogous results are obtained for the tracking--type problem for only time--dependent controls.
The developed theory on the control problem and the first-- and second--order optimality conditions is applied to perform a numerical analysis for a Galerkin discretization of the FP optimal control problem. The main focus is on tracking-type problems with only time--dependent controls. The idea of the presented Galerkin scheme is to first approximate the PDE--constrained optimization problem by a system of ODE--constrained optimization problems. Then, conditions on the problem are presented such that the convergence of optimal controls from one problem to the other can be guaranteed.
For this purpose, a class of bilinear ODE--constrained optimal control problems arising from the Galerkin discretization of the FP problem is analyzed. First-- and second--order optimality conditions are established, and a numerical analysis is performed. A discretization with linear finite elements for the state and co--state problem is investigated, while the control functions are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise quadratic continuous polynomials. The latter choice is motivated by the bilinear structure of the optimal control problem, allowing to overcome the discrepancies between a discretize--then--optimize and optimize--then--discretize approach. Moreover, second--order accuracy results are shown using the space of continuous, piecewise quadratic polynomials as the discrete space of controls. Lastly, the theoretical results and the second--order convergence rates are numerically verified.

This paper is devoted to a theoretical and numerical investigation of Nash equilibria and Nash bargaining problems governed by bilinear (input-affine) differential models. These systems with a bilinear state-control structure arise in many applications in, e.g., biology, economics, physics, where competition between different species, agents, and forces needs to be modelled. For this purpose, the concept of Nash equilibria (NE) appears appropriate, and the building blocks of the resulting differential Nash games are different control functions associated with different players that pursue different non-cooperative objectives. In this framework, existence of Nash equilibria is proved and computed with a semi-smooth Newton scheme combined with a relaxation method. Further, a related Nash bargaining (NB) problem is discussed. This aims at determining an improvement of all players’ objectives with respect to the Nash equilibria. Results of numerical experiments successfully demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NE and NB computational framework.

Providing adaptive, independence-preserving and theory-guided support to students in dealing with real-world problems in mathematics lessons is a major challenge for teachers in their professional practice. This paper examines this challenge in the context of simulations and mathematical modelling with digital tools: in addition to mathematical difficulties when autonomously working out individual solutions, students may also experience challenges when using digital tools. These challenges need to be closely examined and diagnosed, and might – if necessary – have to be overcome by intervention in such a way that the students can subsequently continue working independently. Thus, if a difficulty arises in the working process, two knowledge dimensions are necessary in order to provide adapted support to students. For teaching simulations and mathematical modelling with digital tools, more specifically, these knowledge dimensions are: pedagogical content knowledge about simulation and modelling processes supported by digital tools (this includes knowledge about phases and difficulties in the working process) and pedagogical content knowledge about interventions during the mentioned processes (focussing on characteristics of suitable interventions as well as their implementation and effects on the students’ working process). The two knowledge dimensions represent cognitive dispositions as the basis for the conceptualisation and operationalisation of a so-called adaptive intervention competence for teaching simulations and mathematical modelling with digital tools. In our article, we present a domain-specific process model and distinguish different types of teacher interventions. Then we describe the design and content of a university course at two German universities aiming to promote this domain-specific professional adaptive intervention competence, among others. In a study using a quasi-experimental pre-post design (N = 146), we confirm that the structure of cognitive dispositions of adaptive intervention competence for teaching simulations and mathematical modelling with digital tools can be described empirically by a two-dimensional model. In addition, the effectiveness of the course is examined and confirmed quantitatively. Finally, the results are discussed, especially against the background of the sample and the research design, and conclusions are derived for possibilities of promoting professional adaptive intervention competence in university courses.