## Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik

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Context. In active galaxies, matter is accreted onto super massive black holes (SMBH). This accretion process causes a region roughly the size of our solar system to outshine the entire host galaxy, forming an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In some of these active galaxies, highly relativistic particle jets are formed parallel to the rotation axis of the super massive black hole. A fraction of these sources is observed under a small inclination angle between the pointing direction of the jet and the observing line of sight. These sources are called blazars. Due to the small inclination angle and the highly relativistic speeds of the particles in the jet, beaming effects occur in the radiation of these particles. Blazars can be subdivided into the high luminosity flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and the low luminosity BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs). As all AGN, blazars are broadband emitters and therefore observable from the longest wavelengths in the radio regime to the shortest wavelengths in the gamma-ray regime. In this thesis I will analyze blazars at these two extremes with respect to their parsec-scale properties in the radio and their time evolution properties in gamma-ray flux.
Method. In the radio regime the technique of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) can be used in order to spatially resolve the synchrotron radiation coming from those objects down to sub-parsec scales. This information can be used to observe the time evolution of the structure of such sources. This is done in large monitoring programs such as the MOJAVE (15 GHz) and the Boston University blazar monitoring program (43 GHz). In this thesis I utilize data of 28 sources from these monitoring programs spanning 10 years of observation from 2003 to 2013, resulting in over 1800 observed epochs, to study the brightness temperature and diameter gradients of these jets. I conduct a search for systematic geometry transitions in the radio jets. The synchrotron cooling time in the radio core of the jets is used to determine the magnetic field strength in the radio core. Considering the jet geometry, these magnetic field strengths are scaled to the ergosphere of the SMBH in order to obtain the distance of the radio core to the SMBH.
In the gamma-regime these blazars cannot be spatially resolved. Due to this, it is hard to put strong constrains onto where the gamma-ray emitting region is. Blazars have shown to be variable at high energies on time scales down to minutes. The nature of this variability can be studied in order to put constrains on the particle acceleration mechanism and possibly the region and size of the gamma-ray emitting region. The variability of blazars in the energy range between 0.1 GeV and 1 GeV can for example be observed with the pair-conversion telescope on board the Fermi satellite. I use 10 years of data from the Fermi-LAT (LAT: Large Area Telescope) satellite in order to study the variability of a large sample of blazars (300-800, depending on the used significance filters for data points). I quantify this variability with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) parameters and the power spectral density (PSD) slopes. The same procedure is applied to 20 light curves available for the radio sample.
Results. The diameter evolution along the jet axis of the radio sources suggests, that FSRQs feature flatter gradients than BL Lacs. Fitting these gradients, it is revealed that BL Lacs are systematically better described by a simple single power law than FSRQs. I found 9 sources with a strongly constrained geometry transition. The sources are 0219+421, 0336-019, 0415+379, 0528+134, 0836+710, 1101+384, 1156+295, 1253-055 and 2200+420. In all of these sources, the geometry transition regions are further out in the jet than the Bondi sphere. The magnetic field strengths of BL Lacs is systematically larger than that of FSRQs. However the scaling of these fields suggest that the radio cores of BL Lac objects are closer to the SMBHs than the radio cores of FSRQs. Analyzing the variability of Fermi-LAT light curves yields consistent results for all samples. FSRQs show systematically steeper PSD slopes and feature OU parameters more favorable to strong variability than BL Lacs. The Fermi-LAT light curves of the sub-sample of radio jets, suggest an anticorrelation between the jet complexity from the radio observations and the OU-parameters as well as the PSD slopes from the gamma-ray observations.
Conclusion.
The flatter diameter gradients of FSRQs suggest that these sources are more collimated further down the jet than BL Lacs. The systematically better description of the diameter and brightness temperature gradient by a single power law of BL Lacs, suggest that FSRQs are more complex with respect to the diameter evolution along the jet and the surface brightness distribution than BL Lac objects. FSRQs often feature regions where recollimation can occur in distinct knots within the jets. For the sources where a geometry transition could be constrained, the Bondi radius, being systematically smaller than the position of the transition region along the jet axis, suggest that changing pressure gradients are not the sole cause for these systematic geometry transitions. Nevertheless they may be responsible for recollimation regions, found typically downstream the jet, beyond the Bondi radius and the transition zone. The difference in the distance of the radio cores between FSRQs and BL Lacs is most likely due to the combination of differences in SMBH masses and systematically smaller jet powers in BL Lacs. The variability in energy ranges above 100 MeV and above 1 GeV-regime suggest that many light curves of BL Lac objects are more likely to be white noise while the PSD slopes and the OU parameters of FSRQ gamma-ray light curves favor stronger variability on larger time scales with respect to the time binning of the analyzed light curve. Although the anticorrelation of the jet complexity acquired from the radio observations and the PSD slopes and OU parameters from the gamma-observations suggest that more complex sources favor OU parameters and PSD slopes resulting in more variability (not white noise) it is beyond the scope of this thesis to pinpoint whether this correlation results from causation. The question whether a complex jet causes more gamma-ray variability or more gamma-ray variability causes more complex jets cannot be answered at this point. Nevertheless the computed correlation measures suggest that this dependence is most likely not linear and therefore an indication that these effects might even interact.

The observation of electromagnetic counterparts to both high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves marked the beginning of a new era in astrophysics. The multi-messenger approach allows us to gain new insights into the most energetic events in the Universe such as gamma-ray bursts, supernovas, and black hole mergers. Real-time multi-messenger alerts are the key component of the observational strategies to unravel the transient signals expected from astrophysical sources. Focusing on the high-energy regime, we present a historical perspective of multi-messenger observations, the detectors and observational techniques used to study them, the status of the multi-messenger alerts and the most significant results, together with an overview of the future prospects in the field.

The tremendous phenomenological success of the Standard Model (SM) suggests that its flavor structure and gauge interactions may not be arbitrary but should have a fundamental first-principle explanation. In this work, we explore how the basic distinctive properties of the SM dynamically emerge from a unified New Physics framework tying together both flavor physics and Grand Unified Theory (GUT) concepts. This framework is suggested by a novel anomaly-free supersymmetric chiral E\(_6\)×SU(2)\(_F\)×U(1)\(_F\) GUT containing the SM. Among the most appealing emergent properties of this theory is the Higgs-matter unification with a highly-constrained massless chiral sector featuring two universal Yukawa couplings close to the GUT scale. At the electroweak scale, the minimal SM-like effective field theory limit of this GUT represents a specific flavored three-Higgs doublet model consistent with the observed large hierarchies in the quark mass spectra and mixing already at tree level.

The extragalactic gamma-ray sky is dominated by blazars, active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a relativistic jet that is closely aligned with the line of sight. Galaxies develop an active nucleus if the central supermassive black hole (BH) accretes large amounts of ambient matter and magnetic flux. The inflowing mass accumulates around the plane perpendicular to the accretion flow's angular momentum. The flow is heated through viscous friction and part of the released energy is radiated as blackbody or non-thermal radiation, with luminosities that can dominate the accumulated stellar luminosity of the host galaxy. A fraction of the accretion flow luminosity is reprocessed in a surrounding field of ionised gas clouds. These clouds, revolving around the central BH, emit Doppler-broadened atomic emission lines. The region where these broad-line-emitting clouds are located is called broad-line region (BLR).
About one in ten AGN forms an outflow of radiation and relativistic particles, called a relativistic jet. According to the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, this is facilitated through electromagnetic processes in the magnetosphere of a spinning BH. The latter induces a magnetospheric poloidal current circuit, generating a decelerating torque on the BH and inducing a toroidal magnetic field. Consequently, rotational energy of the BH is converted to Poynting flux streaming away mainly along the rotational axis and starting the jet. One possibility for particle acceleration near the jet base is realised by magnetospheric vacuum gaps, regions temporarily devoid of plasma, such that an intermittent electric field arises parallel to the magnetic field lines, enabling particle acceleration and contributing to the mass loading of the jets.
Magnetised structures, containing bunches of relativistic electrons, propagate away from the galactic nucleus along the jets. Assuming that these electrons emit synchrotron radiation and that they inverse-Compton (IC) up-scatter abundant target photons, which can either be the synchrotron photons themselves or photons from external emitters, the emitted spectrum can be theoretically determined. Additionally taking into account that these emission regions move relativistically themselves and that the emission is Doppler-boosted and beamed in forward direction, the typical two-hump spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars is recovered.
There are however findings that challenge this well-established model. Short-time variability, reaching down to minute scales at very high energy gamma rays, is today known to be a widespread phenomenon of blazars, calling for very compact emission regions. In most models of such optically thick emission regions, the gamma-ray flux is usually pair-absorbed exponentially, without considering the cascade evolving from the pair-produced electrons. From the observed flux, it is often concluded that emission emanates from larger distances where the region is optically thin, especially from outside of the BLR. Only in few blazars gamma-ray attenuation associated with pair absorption in the BLR was clearly reported.
With the advent of sophisticated high-energy or very high energy gamma-ray detectors, like the Fermi Large Area Telescope or the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescopes, besides the extraordinarily fast variability spectral features have been found that cannot be explained by conventional models reproducing the two-hump SED. Two such narrow spectral features are discussed in this work. For the nearby blazar Markarian 501, hints to a sharp peak around 3 TeV have been reported from a multi-wavelength campaign carried out in July 2014, while for 3C 279 a spectral dip was found in 2018 data, that can hardly be described with conventional fitting functions. In this work it is examined whether these spectral peculiarities of blazar jet emission can be explained, if the full radiation reprocessing through an IC pair cascade is accounted for.
Such a cascade is the multiple concatenation of IC scattering events and pair production events. In the cascades generally considered in this work, relativistic electrons and high-energy photons are injected into a fixed soft target photon field. A mathematical description for linear IC pair cascades with escape terms is delivered on the basis of preliminary works. The steady-state kinetic equations for the electrons and for the photons are determined, whereby it is paid attention to an explicit formulation and to motivating the correct integration borders of all integrals from kinematic constraints. In determining the potentially observable gamma-ray flux, both the attenuated injected flux and the flux evolving as an effect of IC up-scattering, pair absorption and escape are incorporated, giving the emerging spectra very distinct imprints.
Much effort is dedicated to the numerical solution of the electrons' kinetic equation via iterative schemes. It is explained why pointwise iteration from higher to lower Lorentz factors is more efficient than iterating the whole set of sampling points. The algorithm is parallelised at two positions. First, several workers can perform pointwise iterations simultaneously. Second, the most demanding integral is cut into a number of part integrals which can be determined by multiple workers. Through these measures, the Python code can be readily applied to simulate steady-state IC pair cascades with escape.
In the case of Markarian 501 the developed framework is as follows. The AGN hosts an advection-dominated accretion flow with a normalised accretion rate of several \(10^{-4}\) and an electron temperature near \(10^{10}\) K. On the one hand, the accretion flow illuminates the few ambient gas clouds with approximate radius \(10^{11}\) m, which reprocess a fraction 0.01 of the luminosity into hydrogen and helium emission lines. On the other hand, the gamma rays from the accretion flow create electrons and positrons in a sporadically active vacuum gap in the BH magnetosphere. In the active gap, a power of roughly 0.001 of the Blandford-Znajek power is extracted from the rotating BH through a gap potential drop of several \(10^{18}\) V, generating ultra-relativistic electrons, which subsequently are multiplied by a factor of about \(10^6\) through interaction with the accretion flow photons. This electron beam propagates away from the central engine and encounters the photon field of one passing ionised cloud. The resulting IC pair cascade is simulated and the evolving gamma-ray spectrum is determined. Just above the absorption troughs due to the hydrogen lines, the spectrum exhibits a narrow bump around 3 TeV. When the cascaded emission is added to the emission generated at larger distances, the observed multi-wavelength SED including the sharp peak at 3 TeV is reproduced, underlining that radiation processes beyond conventional models are motivated by distinct spectral features.
The dip in the spectrum of 3C 279 is addressed by a similar cascade model. Three types of injection are considered, varying in the ratio of the photon density to the electron density and varying in the spectral shape. The IC pair cascade is assumed to happen either in the dense BLR photon field with a luminosity of several \(10^{37}\) W and a radial size of few \(10^{14}\) m or in the diluted photon field outside of the BLR. The latter scenario is however rejected as the spectral slope around several 100 MeV and the dip at few 10 GeV cannot be reconciled within this model. The radiation cascaded in the BLR can explain the observational data, irrespective of the assumed injected rate. It is therefore concluded that for this period of gamma-ray emission, the radiation production happens at the edge of the BLR of 3C 279.
Both investigations show that IC pair cascades can account for fine structure seen in blazar SEDs. It is insufficient to restrict the radiation transport to pure exponential absorption of an injection term. Pair production and IC up-scattering by all generations of photons and electrons in the optically thick regime critically shape the emerging spectra. As the advent of future improved detectors will provide more high-precision spectra, further observations of narrow spectral features can be expected. It seems therefore recommendable to incorporate cascading into conventional radiation production models or to extend the model developed in this work by synchrotron radiation.

The Bateman functions and the allied Havelock functions were introduced as solutions of some problems in hydrodynamics about ninety years ago, but after a period of one or two decades they were practically neglected. In handbooks, the Bateman function is only mentioned as a particular case of the confluent hypergeometric function. In order to revive our knowledge on these functions, their basic properties (recurrence functional and differential relations, series, integrals and the Laplace transforms) are presented. Some new results are also included. Special attention is directed to the Bateman and Havelock functions with integer orders, to generalizations of these functions and to the Bateman-integral function known in the literature.

We investigated emission properties of photonic structures with InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dashes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a distributed Bragg reflector. In high-spatial-resolution photoluminescence experiment, well-resolved sharp spectral lines are observed and single-photon emission is detected in the third telecommunication window characterized by very low multiphoton events probabilities. The photoluminescence spectra measured on simple photonic structures in the form of cylindrical mesas reveal significant intensity enhancement by a factor of 4 when compared to a planar sample. These results are supported by simulations of the electromagnetic field distribution, which show emission extraction efficiencies even above 18% for optimized designs. When combined with relatively simple and undemanding fabrication approach, it makes this kind of structures competitive with the existing solutions in that spectral range and prospective in the context of efficient and practical single-photon sources for fiber-based quantum networks applications.

Hard X-ray Properties of Relativistically Beamed Jets from Radio- and Gamma-Ray-Bright Blazars
(2022)

In this work I characterize the hard X-ray properties of blazars, active galactic nuclei with highly beamed emission, which are notoriously hard to detect in this energy range. I employ pre-defined samples of beamed AGN: the radio-selected MOJAVE and TANAMI samples, as well as the most recent gamma-ray-selected Fermi/LAT 4LAC catalog. The hard X-ray data is extracted from the 105-month all-sky survey maps of the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) in the energy band of 20 keV to 100 keV. A great majority of both the MOJAVE and TANAMI samples are significantly detected, with signal-to noise ratios of the sources often just below the X-ray catalog signal thresholds. All blazar sub-types (FSRQs, BL Lacs) and radio galaxies show characteristic ranges of X-ray flux, luminosity, and photon index. Their properties are correlated with the corresponding SED's shape / peak frequency. The LogN-LogS distributions of the samples show a scarcity of blazars in the middle and lower X-ray flux range, indicating differing evolutionary paths between radio and X-ray emission, which is also suggested by the corresponding luminosity functions. Compared to the radio samples, the 4LAC sources are on average significantly less bright in the BAT band since this range often coincides with the spectral gap region between the two big SED emission bumps. Also, the spectral shapes differ notably, especially for the sub-type of BL Lacs. Using the parameter space of X-ray and gamma-ray photon indices, 35 blazar candidate sources can be assigned to either the FSRQ or BL Lac type with high certainty. The reason why many blazars are weak in this energy band can be traced back to a number of factors: the selection bias of the initial sample, differential evolution of the X-rays and the wavelengths in which the sample is defined, and the limited sensitivity of the observing instruments.

This thesis studies connections between quantum information measures and geometric features of spacetimes within the AdS/CFT correspondence. These studies are motivated by the idea that spacetime can be thought of as an effect emerging from an underlying entanglement structure in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, I study generalized entanglement measures in two-dimensional conformal field theories and their holographic duals. Unlike the ordinary entanglement entropy of a spatial subregion typically used in the AdS/CFT context, the generalization considered here measures correlations between different fields as well as between spatial degrees of freedom. I present a new gauge invariant definition of the generalized entanglement entropy applicable to both mixed and pure states as well as explicit results for thermal states of the S_N-orbifold theory of the D1/D5 system. Along the way, I develop computation techniques for conformal blocks on the torus and apply them to the calculation of the ordinary entanglement entropy for large central charge CFTs at finite size and finite temperature. The generalized Ryu-Takayanagi formula arising from these studies provides further support for the idea that entanglement and geometry are intrinsically linked in AdS/CFT. The results show that the holographic dual to the generalized entanglement entropy given by the length of a geodesic winding around black hole horizons or naked singularities probes subregions of spacetime that are inaccessible to Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces, thereby solving the puzzle of how these features of the spacetime are encoded in the boundary theory. Furthermore, I investigate quantum circuits embedded in two-dimensional conformal field theories as well as computational complexity measures therein. These investigations are motivated by conjectures relating computational complexity in conformal field theories to geometric features of black hole geometries. In this thesis, I study quantum circuits built up from conformal transformations. I investigate examples of computational complexity measures in these circuits related to geometric actions on coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and to the Fubini-Study metric. I then work out relations between these computational complexity measures and the dual gravitational theory. Moreover, I construct a bulk dual to the circuits in consideration and use this construction to study geometric realizations of computational complexity measures from first principles. The results of this part on the one hand rule out some possibilities for dual realizations of computational complexity in two-dimensional CFTs put forward in previous work while on the other hand providing a new robust dual realization of a computational complexity measure based on the Fubini-Study distance.

The neoclassical mainstream theory of economic growth does not care about the First and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It usually considers only capital and labor as the factors that produce the wealth of modern industrial economies. If energy is taken into account as a factor of production, its economic weight, that is its output elasticity, is assigned a meager magnitude of roughly 5 percent, according to the neoclassical cost-share theorem. Because of that, neoclassical economics has the problems of the “Solow Residual”, which is the big difference between observed and computed economic growth, and of the failure to explain the economic recessions since World War 2 by the variations of the production factors. Having recalled these problems, we point out that technological constraints on factor combinations have been overlooked in the derivation of the cost-share theorem. Biophysical analyses of economic growth that disregard this theorem and mend the neoclassical deficiencies are sketched. They show that energy’s output elasticity is much larger than its cost share and elucidate the existence of bidirectional causality between energy conversion and economic growth. This helps to understand how economic crises have been triggered and overcome by supply-side and demand-side actions. Human creativity changes the state of economic systems. We discuss the challenges to it by the risks from politics and markets in conjunction with energy sources and technologies, and by the constraints that the emissions of particles and heat from entropy production impose on industrial growth in the biosphere.

Emergent phenomena in condensed matter physics like, e.g., magnetism, superconductivity, or non-trivial topology often come along with a surprise and exert great fascination to researchers up to this day. Within this thesis, we are concerned with the analysis of associated types of order that arise due to strong electronic interactions and focus on the high-\(T_c\) cuprates and Kondo systems as two prime candidates. The underlying many-body problem cannot be solved analytically and has given rise to the development of various approximation techniques to tackle the problem.
In concrete terms, we apply the auxiliary particle approach to investigate tight-binding Hamiltonians subject to a Hubbard interaction term to account for the screened Coulomb repulsion. Thereby, we adopt the so-called Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave-boson representation that reduces the problem to non-interacting quasiparticles within a mean-field approximation. Part I provides a pedagogical review of the theory and generalizes the established formalism to encompass Gaussian fluctuations around magnetic ground states as a crucial step to obtaining novel results.
Part II addresses the two-dimensional one-band Hubbard model, which is known to approximately describe the physics of the high-\(T_c\) cuprates that feature high-temperature superconductivity and various other exotic quantum phases that are not yet fully understood. First, we provide a comprehensive slave-boson analysis of the model, including the discussion of incommensurate magnetic phases, collective modes, and a comparison to other theoretical methods that shows that our results can be massively improved through the newly implemented fluctuation corrections. Afterward, we focus on the underdoped regime and find an intertwining of spin and charge order signaled by divergences of the static charge susceptibility within the antiferromagnetic domain. There is experimental evidence for such inhomogeneous phases in various cuprate materials, which has recently aroused interest because such correlations are believed to impact the formation of Cooper pairs. Our analysis identifies two distinct charge-ordering vectors, one of which can be attributed to a Fermi-surface nesting effect and quantitatively fits experimental data in \(\mathrm{Nd}_{2-\mathrm{x}}\mathrm{Ce}_\mathrm{x}\mathrm{CuO}_4\) (NCCO), an electron-doped cuprate compound. The other resembles the so-called Yamada relation implying the formation of periodic, double-occupied domain walls with a crossover to phase separation for small dopings.
Part III investigates Kondo systems by analyzing the periodic Anderson model and its generalizations. First, we consider Kondo metals and detect weakly magnetized ferromagnetic order in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, which hinders the formation of heavy fermions. Nevertheless, we suggest two different parameter regimes that could host a possible Kondo regime in the context of one or two conduction bands. The part is concluded with the study of topological order in Kondo insulators based on a three-dimensional model with centrosymmetric spin-orbit coupling. Thereby, we classify topologically distinct phases through appropriate \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) invariants and consider paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic mean-field ground states. Our model parameters are chosen to specifically describe samarium hexaboride (\(\mbox{SmB}_6\)), which is widely believed to be a topological Kondo insulator, and we identify topologically protected surface states in agreement with experimental evidence in that material. Moreover, our theory predicts the emergence of an antiferromagnetic topological insulator featuring one-dimensional hinge-states as the signature of higher-order topology in the strong coupling regime. While the nature of the true ground state is still under debate, corresponding long-range magnetic order has been observed in pressurized or alloyed \(\mbox{SmB}_6\), and recent experimental findings point towards non-trivial topology under these circumstances. The ability to understand and control topological systems brings forth promising applications in the context of spintronics and quantum computing.