## Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik

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For the understanding of the variable, transient and non-thermal universe, unbiased long-term monitoring is crucial. To constrain the emission mechanisms at the highest energies, it is important to characterize the very high energy emission and its correlation with observations at other wavelengths. At very high energies, only a limited number of instruments is available. This article reviews the current status of monitoring of the extra-galactic sky at TeV energies.

The helical distribution of the electronic density in chiral molecules, such as DNA and bacteriorhodopsin, has been suggested to induce a spin–orbit coupling interaction that may lead to the so-called chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect. Key ingredients for the theoretical modelling are, in this context, the helically shaped potential of the molecule and, concomitantly, a Rashba-like spin–orbit coupling due to the appearance of a magnetic field in the electron reference frame. Symmetries of these models clearly play a crucial role in explaining the observed effect, but a thorough analysis has been largely ignored in the literature. In this work, we present a study of these symmetries and how they can be exploited to enhance chiral-induced spin selectivity in helical molecular systems.

Single-molecule super-resolution microscopy (SMLM) techniques like dSTORM can reveal biological structures down to the nanometer scale. The achievable resolution is not only defined by the localization precision of individual fluorescent molecules, but also by their density, which becomes a limiting factor e.g., in expansion microscopy. Artificial deep neural networks can learn to reconstruct dense super-resolved structures such as microtubules from a sparse, noisy set of data points. This approach requires a robust method to assess the quality of a predicted density image and to quantitatively compare it to a ground truth image. Such a quality measure needs to be differentiable to be applied as loss function in deep learning. We developed a new trainable quality measure based on Fourier Ring Correlation (FRC) and used it to train deep neural networks to map a small number of sampling points to an underlying density. Smooth ground truth images of microtubules were generated from localization coordinates using an anisotropic Gaussian kernel density estimator. We show that the FRC criterion ideally complements the existing state-of-the-art multiscale structural similarity index, since both are interpretable and there is no trade-off between them during optimization. The TensorFlow implementation of our FRC metric can easily be integrated into existing deep learning workflows.

The electric and nonvolatile control of the spin texture in semiconductors would represent a fundamental step toward novel electronic devices combining memory and computing functionalities. Recently, GeTe has been theoretically proposed as the father compound of a new class of materials, namely ferroelectric Rashba semiconductors. They display bulk bands with giant Rashba-like splitting due to the inversion symmetry breaking arising from the ferroelectric polarization, thus allowing for the ferroelectric control of the spin. Here, we provide the experimental demonstration of the correlation between ferroelectricity and spin texture. A surface-engineering strategy is used to set two opposite predefined uniform ferroelectric polarizations, inward and outward, as monitored by piezoresponse force microscopy. Spin and angular resolved photoemission experiments show that these GeTe(111) surfaces display opposite sense of circulation of spin in bulk Rashba bands. Furthermore, we demonstrate the crafting of nonvolatile ferroelectric patterns in GeTe films at the nanoscale by using the conductive tip of an atomic force microscope. Based on the intimate link between ferroelectric polarization and spin in GeTe, ferroelectric patterning paves the way to the investigation of devices with engineered spin configurations.

In this thesis, I study entanglement in quantum field theory, using methods from operator algebra theory. More precisely, the thesis covers original research on the entanglement properties of the free fermionic field. After giving a pedagogical introduction to algebraic methods in quantum field theory, as well as the modular theory of Tomita-Takesaki and its relation to entanglement, I present a coherent framework that allows to solve Tomita-Takesaki theory for free fermionic fields in any number of dimensions. Subsequently, I use the derived machinery on the free massless fermion in two dimensions, where the formulae can be evaluated analytically. In particular, this entails the derivation of the resolvent of restrictions of the propagator, by means of solving singular integral equations. In this way, I derive the modular flow, modular Hamiltonian, modular correlation function, R\'enyi entanglement entropy, von-Neumann entanglement entropy, relative entanglement entropy, and mutual information for multi-component regions. All of this is done for the vacuum and thermal states, both on the infinite line and the circle with (anti-)periodic boundary conditions. Some of these results confirm previous results from the literature, such as the modular Hamiltonian and entanglement entropy in the vacuum state. The non-universal solutions for modular flow, modular correlation function, and R\'enyi entropy, however are new, in particular at finite temperature on the circle. Additionally, I show how boundaries of spacetime affect entanglement, as well as how one can define relative (entanglement) entropy and mutual information in theories with superselection rules. The findings regarding modular flow in multi-component regions can be summarised as follows: In the non-degenerate vacuum state, modular flow is multi-local, in the sense that it mixes the field operators along multiple trajectories, with one trajectory per component. This was already known from previous literature but is presented here in a more explicit form. In particular, I present the exact solution for the dynamics of the mixing process. What was not previously known at all, is that the modular flow of the thermal state on the circle is infinitely multi-local even for a connected region, in the sense that it mixes the field along an infinite, discretely distributed set, of trajectories. In the limit of high temperatures, all trajectories but the local one are pushed towards the boundary of the region, where their amplitude is damped exponentially, leaving only the local result. At low temperatures, on the other hand, these trajectories distribute densely in the region to either---for anti-periodic boundary conditions---cancel, or---for periodic boundary conditions---recover the non-local contribution due to the degenerate vacuum state. Proceeding to spacetimes with boundaries, I show explicitly how the presence of a boundary implies entanglement between the two components of the Dirac spinor. By computing the mutual information between the components inside a connected region, I show quantitatively that this entanglement decreases as an inverse square law at large distances from the boundary. In addition, full conformal symmetry (which is explicitly broken due to the presence of a boundary) is recovered from the exact solution for modular flow, far away from the boundary. As far as I know, all of these results are new, although related results were published by another group during the final stage of this thesis. Finally, regarding relative entanglement entropy in theories with superselection sectors, I introduce charge and flux resolved relative entropies, which are novel measures for the distinguishability of states, incorporating a charge operator, central to the algebra of observables. While charge resolved relative entropy has the interpretation of being a ``distinguishability per charge sector'', I argue that it is physically meaningless without placing a cutoff, due to infinite short-distance entanglement. Flux resolved relative entropy, on the other hand, overcomes this problem by inserting an Aharonov-Bohm flux and thus passing to a variant of the grand canonical ensemble. It takes a well defined value, even without putting a cutoff, and I compute its value between various states of the free massless fermion on the line, the charge operator being the total fermion number.

Within gauge/gravity duality, we consider the local quench-like time evolution obtained by joining two 1+1-dimensional heat baths at different temperatures at time \(t\) = 0. A steady state forms and expands in space. For the 2+1-dimensional gravity dual, we find that the “shockwaves” expanding the steady-state region are of spacelike nature in the bulk despite being null at the boundary. However, they do not transport information. Moreover, by adapting the time-dependent Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi prescription, we holographically calculate the entanglement entropy and also the mutual information for different entangling regions. For general temperatures, we find that the entanglement entropy increase rate satisfies the same bound as in the ‘entanglement tsunami’ setups. For small temperatures of the two baths, we derive an analytical formula for the time dependence of the entanglement entropy. This replaces the entanglement tsunami-like behaviour seen for high temperatures. Finally, we check that strong subadditivity holds in this time-dependent system, as well as further more general entanglement inequalities for five or more regions recently derived for the static case.

In the last decade continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo in the hybridization expansion (CTHYB) was one of the most successful Monte Carlo techniques to describe correlated quantum phenomena in conjunction with dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The first part of the thesis consists of algorithmical developments regarding CTHYB and DMFT. I provide a complete derivation and an extensive discussion of the expansion formula. We generalized it to treat spin-orbit coupling, and invented the superstate sampling algorithm to make it efficient enough for describing systems with general interactions, crystal fields and spin-orbit coupling at low temperatures. But CTHYB is known to fail in the standard implementation for equal-time correlators, certain higher-order Green’s functions and the atomic limit; we discovered that its estimator for the Greens function is also inconsistent for Anderson impurities with finite, discrete baths. I focus then on further improvements of CTHYB that we have conceived and worked on, in particular for f-orbitals and for taking physical symmetries into account in the calculation of the Monte Carlo observables. The second part of the thesis presents selected physical applications of these methods. I show DMFT calculations of highest accuracy for elemental iron and nickel and discover a new mechanism of magnetic ordering in nickel: the ordering of band structure-induced local moments. Then we analyze the stability of this phenomenon under pressure and temperatures, that characterize in the Earth’s core. We find, that the mechanism survives these conditions and may give a significant contribution to the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field. The next topic is the stability of double Dirac fermions against electronic correlations. We find, that the Coulomb interaction in the corresponding material Bi2 CuO4 are strong enough to destroy the double Dirac cone, and substantial uniform pressure is necessary to restore them. In the last chapter I derive the properties of Higgs and Goldstone bosons from Ginzburg-Landau theory, and identify these excitations in a model of an excitonic magnet.

Im Rahmen eines selbst-konsistenten Outer-Gap-Modells der Pulsar-Magnetosphäre wurde die elektromagnetische sehr hochenergetische Strahlung des Crab-Pulsars simuliert. Dies wurde parallel anhand zweier verschiedener Fälle getan, die sich in den angenommenen Gleichungen für die elektrische Feldstärke und für den Krümmungsradius der magnetischen Feldlinien unterscheiden. Die Kinetik der geladenen Teilchen bei ihrer Propagation durch die Outer Gap wurde unter Einbeziehung von Krümmungsstrahlung, inverser Compton-Streuung und Triple Paarbildung betrachtet. Das theoretisch simulierte Spektrum wird mit von Fermi-LAT und von den MAGIC Teleskopen gemessenen Daten verglichen.

In this review paper, we stress the importance of the higher transcendental Wright functions of the second kind in the framework of Mathematical Physics. We first start with the analytical properties of the classical Wright functions of which we distinguish two kinds. We then justify the relevance of the Wright functions of the second kind as fundamental solutions of the time-fractional diffusion-wave equations. Indeed, we think that this approach is the most accessible point of view for describing non-Gaussian stochastic processes and the transition from sub-diffusion processes to wave propagation. Through the sections of the text and suitable appendices, we plan to address the reader in this pathway towards the applications of the Wright functions of the second kind.

Over the last two decades, accompanied by their prediction and ensuing realization, topological non-trivial materials like topological insulators, Dirac semimetals, and Weyl semimetals have been in the focus of mesoscopic condensed matter research. While hosting a plethora of intriguing physical phenomena all on their own, even more fascinating features emerge when superconducting order is included. Their intrinsically pronounced spin-orbit coupling leads to peculiar, time-reversal symmetry protected surface states, unconventional superconductivity, and even to the emergence of exotic bound states in appropriate setups.
This Thesis explores various junctions built from - or incorporating - topological materials in contact with superconducting order, placing particular emphasis on the transport properties and the proximity effect.
We begin with the analysis of Josephson junctions where planar samples of mercury telluride are sandwiched between conventional superconducting contacts. The surprising observation of pronounced excess currents in experiments, which can be well described by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory, has long been an ambiguous issue in this field, since the necessary presumptions are seemingly not met. We propose a resolution to this predicament by demonstrating that the interface properties in hybrid nanostructures of distinctly different materials yet corroborate these assumptions and explain the outcome. An experimental realization is feasible by gating the contacts. We then proceed with NSN junctions based on time-reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetals and including superconducting order. Due to the anisotropy of the electron band structure, both the transport properties as well as the proximity effect depend substantially on the orientation of the interfaces between the materials. Moreover, an imbalance can be induced in the electron population between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality, resulting in a non-vanishing spin polarization of the Cooper pairs leaking into the normal contacts. We show that such a system features a tunable dipole character with possible applications in spintronics. Finally, we consider partially superconducting surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators. Tuning such a system into the so-called bipolar setup, this results in the formation of equal-spin Cooper pairs inside the superconductor, while simultaneously acting as a filter for non-local singlet pairing. The creation and manipulation of these spin-polarized Cooper pairs can be achieved by mere electronic switching processes and in the absence of any magnetic order, rendering such a nanostructure an interesting system for superconducting spintronics. The inherent spin-orbit coupling of the surface state is crucial for this observation, as is the bipolar setup which strongly promotes non-local Andreev processes.