## 11.10.Nx Noncommutative field theory

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Over the past decades, noncommutative geometry has grown into an established field in pure mathematics and theoretical physics. The discovery that noncommutative geometry emerges as a limit of quantum gravity and string theory has provided strong motivations to search for physics beyond the standard model of particle physics and also beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity within the realm of noncommutative geometries. A very fruitful approach in the latter direction is due to Julius Wess and his group, which combines deformation quantization (star-products) with quantum group methods. The resulting gravity theory does not only include noncommutative effects of spacetime, but it is also invariant under a deformed Hopf algebra of diffeomorphisms, generalizing the principle of general covariance to the noncommutative setting. The purpose of the first part of this thesis is to understand symmetry reduction in noncommutative gravity, which then allows us to find exact solutions of the noncommutative Einstein equations. These are important investigations in order to capture the physical content of such theories and to make contact to applications in e.g. noncommutative cosmology and black hole physics. We propose an extension of the usual symmetry reduction procedure, which is frequently applied to the construction of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations, to noncommutative gravity and show that this leads to preferred choices of noncommutative deformations of a given symmetric system. We classify in the case of abelian Drinfel'd twists all consistent deformations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies and of the Schwarzschild black hole. The deformed symmetry structure allows us to obtain exact solutions of the noncommutative Einstein equations in many of our models, for which the noncommutative metric field coincides with the classical one. In the second part we focus on quantum field theory on noncommutative curved spacetimes. We develop a new formalism by combining methods from the algebraic approach to quantum field theory with noncommutative differential geometry. The result is an algebra of observables for scalar quantum field theories on a large class of noncommutative curved spacetimes. A precise relation to the algebra of observables of the corresponding undeformed quantum field theory is established. We focus on explicit examples of deformed wave operators and find that there can be noncommutative corrections even on the level of free field theories, which is not the case in the simplest example of the Moyal-Weyl deformed Minkowski spacetime. The convergent deformation of simple toy-models is investigated and it is shown that these quantum field theories have many new features compared to formal deformation quantization. In addition to the expected nonlocality, we obtain that the relation between the deformed and the undeformed quantum field theory is affected in a nontrivial way, leading to an improved behavior of the noncommutative quantum field theory at short distances, i.e. in the ultraviolet. In the third part we develop elements of a more powerful, albeit more abstract, mathematical approach to noncommutative gravity. The goal is to better understand global aspects of homomorphisms between and connections on noncommutative vector bundles, which are fundamental objects in the mathematical description of noncommutative gravity. We prove that all homomorphisms and connections of the deformed theory can be obtained by applying a quantization isomorphism to undeformed homomorphisms and connections. The extension of homomorphisms and connections to tensor products of modules is clarified, and as a consequence we are able to add tensor fields of arbitrary type to the noncommutative gravity theory of Wess et al. As a nontrivial application of the new mathematical formalism we extend our studies of exact noncommutative gravity solutions to more general deformations.

Despite its precise agreement with the experiment, the validity of the standard model (SM) of elementary particle physics is ensured only up to a scale of several hundred GeV so far. Even more, the inclusion of gravity into an unifying theory poses a problem which cannot be solved by ordinary quantum field theory (QFT). String theory, which is the most popular ansatz for a unified theory, predicts QFT on noncommutative space-time as a low energy limit. Nevertheless, independently of the motivation given by string theory, the nonlocality inherent to noncommutative QFT opens up the possibility for the inclusion of gravity. There are no theoretical predictions for the energy scale Lambda_NC at which noncommutative effects arise and it can be assumed to lie in the TeV range, which is the energy range probed by the next generation of colliders. Within this work we study the phenomenological consequences of a possible realization of QFT on noncommutative space-time relying on this assumption. The motivation for this thesis was given by the gap in the range of phenomenological studies of noncommutative effects in collider experiments, due to the absence in the literature of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) studies regarding noncommutative QFTs. In the first part we thus performed a phenomenological analysis of the hadronic process pp -> Z gamma -> l^+l^- gamma at the LHC and of electron-positron pair annihilation into a Z boson and a photon at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The noncommutative extension of the SM considered within this work relies on two building blocks: the Moyal-Weyl star-product of functions on ordinary space-time and the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter relate the ordinary fields and parameters to their noncommutative counterparts such that ordinary gauge transformations induce noncommutative gauge transformations. This requirement is expressed by a set of inhomogeneous differential equations (the gauge equivalence equations) which are solved by the Seiberg-Witten maps order by order in the noncommutative parameter Theta. Thus, by means of the Moyal-Weyl star-product and the Seiberg-Witten maps a noncommutative extension of the SM as an effective theory as expansion in powers of Theta can be achieved, providing the framework of our phenomenological studies. A consequence of the noncommutativity of space-time is the violation of rotational invariance with respect to the beam axis. This effect shows up in the azimuthal dependence of cross sections, which is absent in the SM as well as in other models beyond the SM. Thus, the azimuthal dependence of the cross section is a typical signature of noncommutativity and can be used in order to discriminate it against other new physics effects. We have found this dependence to be best suited for deriving the sensitivity bounds on the noncommutative scale Lambda_NC. By studying pp -> Z gamma -> l^+l^- gamma to first order in the noncommutative parameter Theta, we show in the first part of this work that measurements at the LHC are sensitive to noncommutative effects only in certain cases, giving bounds on the noncommutative scale of Lambda_NC > 1.2 TeV. Our result improved the bounds present in the literature coming from past and present collider experiments by one order of magnitude. In order to explore the whole parameter range of the noncommutativity, ILC studies are required. By means of e^+e^- -> Z gamma -> l^+l^- gamma to first order in Theta we have shown that ILC measurements are complementary to LHC measurements of the noncommutative parameters. In addition, the bounds on Lambda_NC derived from the ILC are significantly higher and reach Lambda_NC > 6 TeV. The second part of this work arose from the necessity to enlarge the range of validity of our model towards higher energies. Thus, we expand the neutral current sector of the noncommutative SM to second order in $\theta$. We found that, against the general expectation, the theory must be enlarged by additional parameters. The new parameters enter the theory as ambiguities of the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter are not uniquely determined and differ by homogeneous solutions of the gauge equivalence equations. The expectation was that the ambiguities correspond to field redefinitions and therefore should vanish in scattering matrix elements. However, we proved that this is not the case, and the ambiguities do affect physical observables. Our conjecture is, that every order in Theta will introduce new parameters to the theory. However, only the experiment can decide to what extent efforts with still higher orders in Theta are reasonable and will also give directions for the development of theoretical models of noncommutative QFTs.

The basic question which drove our whole work was to find a meaningful noncommutative gauge theory even for the time-like case ($\theta^{0 i} \neq 0$). In order to be able to tackle questions regarding unitarity, it is not sufficient to consider theories which include the noncommutative parameter only up to a finite order. The reason is that in order to investigate tree-level unitarity or the optical theorem in loops one has to know the behavior of the noncommutative theory for center-of-mass energies much greater than the noncommutative scale. Therefore an effective theory, that is by construction only valid up to the noncommutative scale, isn't sufficient for our purpose. Our model is based on two fundamental assumptions. The first assumption is given by the commutation relations \eqref{eq:ncalg}. This led to the Moyal-Weyl star-product \eqref{eq:astproduct2} which replaces all point-like products between two fields. The second assumption is to assume that the model built this way is not only invariant under the noncommutative gauge transformation but also under the commutative one. In order to obtain an action of such a model one has to replace the fields by their appropriate \swms. We chose the gauge fixed action \eqref{eq:actioncgf} as the fundamental action of our model. After having constructed the action of the NCQED including the {\swms} we were confronted with the problem of calculating the {\swms} to all orders in $\tMN$. By means of \cite{bbg} we could calculate the {\swms} order by order in the gauge field, where each order in the gauge field contains all orders in the noncommutative parameter (\cf chapter \ref{chapter:swms}). By comparing the maps with the result we obtained from an alternative ansatz \cite{bcpvz}, we realized that already the simplest {\swm} for the gauge field is not unique. In chapter \ref{chapter:ambiguities} we examined this ambiguity, which we could parametrised by an arbitrary function $\astf$. The next step was to derive the Feynman rules for our NCQED. One finds that the propagators remain unchanged so that the free theory is equal to the commutative QED. The fermion-fermion-photon vertex contains not only a phase factor coming from the Moyal-Weyl star-product but also two additional terms which have their origin in the \swms. Beside the 3-photon vertex which is already present in NCQED without {\swms} and which has also additional terms coming from the \swms, too, one has a contact vertex which couples two fermions with two photons. After having derived all the vertices we calculated the pair annihilation scattering process $e^+ e^- \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ at Born level. By choosing the parameter $\kggg = 1$ (\cf section \ref{sec:represent}), we found that the amplitude of the pair annihilation process becomes equal to the amplitude of the NCQED without \swms. This means that, at least for this process, the NCQED excluding {\swms} is only a special case of NCQED including \swms. On the basis of the pair annihilation process, we afterwards investigated tree-level unitarity. In order to satisfy the tree-level unitarity we had to constrain the arbitrary function $\astf$. We found that the series expansion of $\astf$ has to start with unity. In addition, the even part of the function must not increase faster than $s^{-1/2} \log(s)$ for $s \rightarrow \infty$, whereas the odd part of the $\astf$-function can't be constrained, at least by the process we considered. By assuming these constrains for the $\astf$-function, we could show that tree-level unitarity is satisfied if one incorporates the uncertainties present in the energy and the momenta of the scattered particles, \ie the uncertainties of the center-of-mass energy and the scattering angles. This uncertainties are not exclusively present due to the finite experimental resolution. A delta-like center-of-mass energy as well as delta-like momenta are in general not possible because the scattered particles are never exact plane waves.