## 12.60.-i Models beyond the standard model; Unified field theories and models, see 12.10.-g

### Refine

#### Keywords

- Elementarteilchenphysik (2)
- particle physics (2)
- Dimension 5 (1)
- Dunkle Materie (1)
- Extra Dimensions (1)
- Extradimensionen (1)
- Higgsless Models (1)
- Higgslose Modelle (1)
- Hochenergiephysik (1)
- LHC (1)

The top quark plays an important role in current particle physics, from a theoretical point of view because of its uniquely large mass, but also experimentally because of the large number of top events recorded by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS, which makes it possible to directly measure the properties of this particle, for example its couplings to the other particles of the standard model (SM), with previously unknown precision. In this thesis, an effective field theory approach is employed to introduce a minimal and consistent parametrization of all anomalous top couplings to the SM gauge bosons and fermions which are compatible with the SM symmetries. In addition, several aspects and consequences of the underlying effective operator relations for these couplings are discussed. The resulting set of couplings has been implemented in the parton level Monte Carlo event generator WHIZARD in order to provide a tool for the quantitative assessment of the phenomenological implications at present and future colliders such as the LHC or a planned international linear collider. The phenomenological part of this thesis is focused on the charged current couplings of the top quark, namely anomalous contributions to the trilinear tbW coupling as well as quartic four-fermion contact interactions of the form tbff, both affecting single top production as well as top decays at the LHC. The study includes various aspects of inclusive cross section measurements as well as differential distributions of single tops produced in the t channel, bq → tq', and in the s channel, ud → tb. We discuss the parton level modelling of these processes as well as detector effects, and finally present the prospected LHC reach for setting limits on these couplings with 10 resp. 100 fb−1 of data recorded at √s = 14 TeV.

Since its popularization due to Randall and Sundrum (RS) one decade ago, and in connection with the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence in particular, 5D warped background spacetime has been one of the most fruitful new ideas in physics beyond the standard model (SM), leading to new insights into symmetry breaking and the properties of strongly interacting theories inaccessible to direct perturbative calculations, while at the same time relating gravity to phenomenological model building. This has, among others, led to a renewed interest in models of electroweak symmetry breaking without physical scalar fields in the guise of so-called 'warped higgsless' models, which could provide an alternative to the famed Higgs mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking which is part of the Standard Model of particle physics. However, little emphasis was put on reconciling these models with the strong evidence from astrophysical observations that one or several new, as yet unknown, stable particle species exist which form the cold dark matter content of the universe. The nature of dark matter and electroweak symmetry breaking are among the most prominent puzzles subject to experimental scrutiny at the Tevatron, direct search experiments, and in the near future at the LHC, which compels us the believe that both issues should be addressed together in any alternative scenario beyond the Standard Model. In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved $R$ parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D $\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary $\mathcal{N}=1$ theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete $\mathcal{N}=2$ supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their $\mathcal{O}(100\mbox{ GeV})$ masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement with WMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around $m_{\chi^+}\approx 100\dots 110$ GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around $m_\chi\approx 90$ GeV. At the LHC, the standard particle content of our model shares most of the key features of known warped higgsless models. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of warped higgsless LSP and NLSP production at a benchmark point using \nameomega/\namewhizard, concentrating on $\ptmiss$ in association with third generation quarks. After background reduction cuts on the quark momenta and angles, we get hadronic cross sections of $\sigma>100\mbox{ fb}$ at $14\mbox{ TeV}$ with characteristic $\ptmiss$ distributions for $\chi\chi t\overline{t}$ final states, while the final states with $b\overline{b}$ pairs have much lower event rates and shapes which are hard to discern in experiments. Our results suggest that the discovery of warped higgsless LSP dark matter at the LHC via missing energy is within reach for the first few $\mbox{ fb}^{-1}$ at $14$ TeV if $b$ and in particular $t$ identification is reliable.

The four-dimensional Minkowski space is known to be a good description for space-time down to the length scales probed by the latest high-energy experiments. Nevertheless, there is the viable and exciting possibility that additional space-time structure will be observable in the next generation of collider experiments. Hence, we discuss different extensions of the standard model of particle physics with an extra dimension at the TeV-scale. We assume that some of the gauge and Higgs bosons propagate in one additional spatial dimension, while matter fields are confined to a four-dimensional subspace, the usual Minkowski space. After compactification on an S^1/Z_2 orbifold, an effective four-dimensional theory is obtained where towers of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes, in addition to the standard model fields, reflect the higher-dimensional structure of space-time. The models are elaborated from the 5D Lagrangian to the Feynman rules of the KK modes. Special attention is paid to an appropriate generalization of the Rxi-gauge and the interplay between spontaneous symmetry breaking and compactification. Confronting the observables in 5D standard model extensions with combined precision measurements at the Z-boson pole and the latest data from LEP2, we constrain the possible size R of the extra dimension experimentally. A multi-parameter fit of all relevant input parameters leads to bounds for the compactification scale M=1/R in the range 4-6 TeV at the 2 sigma confidence level and shows how the mass of the Higgs boson is correlated with the size of an extra dimension. Considering a future linear e+e- collider, we outline the discovery potential for an extra dimension using the proposed TESLA specifications as an example. As a consistency check for the various models, we analyze Ward identities and the gauge boson equivalence theorem in W-pair production and find that gauge symmetry is preserved by a complex interplay of the Kaluza-Klein modes. In this context, we point out the close analogy between the traditional Higgs mechanism and mass generation for gauge bosons via compactification. Beyond the tree-level, the higher-dimensional models studied extensively in the literature and in the first part of this thesis have to be extended. We modify the models by the inclusion of brane kinetic terms which are required as counter terms. Again, we derive the corresponding 4D theory for the KK towers paying special attention to gauge fixing and spontaneous symmetry breaking. Finally, the phenomenological implications of the new brane kinetic terms are investigated in detail.