## 510 Mathematik

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A new approach to modelling pedestrians' avoidance dynamics based on a Fokker–Planck (FP) Nash game framework is presented. In this framework, two interacting pedestrians are considered, whose motion variability is modelled through the corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) governed by FP equations. Based on these equations, a Nash differential game is formulated where the game strategies represent controls aiming at avoidance by minimizing appropriate collision cost functionals. The existence of Nash equilibria solutions is proved and characterized as a solution to an optimal control problem that is solved numerically. Results of numerical experiments are presented that successfully compare the computed Nash equilibria to the output of real experiments (conducted with humans) for four test cases.

This thesis deals with a new so-called sequential quadratic Hamiltonian (SQH) iterative scheme to solve optimal control problems with differential models and cost functionals ranging from smooth to discontinuous and non-convex. This scheme is based on the Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP) that provides necessary optimality conditions for an optimal solution. In this framework, a Hamiltonian function is defined that attains its minimum pointwise at the optimal solution of the corresponding optimal control problem. In the SQH scheme, this Hamiltonian function is augmented by a quadratic penalty term consisting of the current control function and the control function from the previous iteration. The heart of the SQH scheme is to minimize this augmented Hamiltonian function pointwise in order to determine a control update. Since the PMP does not require any differ- entiability with respect to the control argument, the SQH scheme can be used to solve optimal control problems with both smooth and non-convex or even discontinuous cost functionals. The main achievement of the thesis is the formulation of a robust and efficient SQH scheme and a framework in which the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme can be carried out. In this framework, convergence of the scheme means that the calculated solution fulfills the PMP condition. The governing differential models of the considered optimal control problems are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). In the PDE case, elliptic and parabolic equations as well as the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation are considered. For both the ODE and the PDE cases, assumptions are formulated for which it can be proved that a solution to an optimal control problem has to fulfill the PMP. The obtained results are essential for the discussion of the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme. This analysis has two parts. The first one is the well-posedness of the scheme which means that all steps of the scheme can be carried out and provide a result in finite time. The second part part is the PMP consistency of the solution. This means that the solution of the SQH scheme fulfills the PMP conditions. In the ODE case, the following results are obtained that state well-posedness of the SQH scheme and the PMP consistency of the corresponding solution. Lemma 7 states the existence of a pointwise minimum of the augmented Hamiltonian. Lemma 11 proves the existence of a weight of the quadratic penalty term such that the minimization of the corresponding augmented Hamiltonian results in a control updated that reduces the value of the cost functional. Lemma 12 states that the SQH scheme stops if an iterate is PMP optimal. Theorem 13 proves the cost functional reducing properties of the SQH control updates. The main result is given in Theorem 14, which states the pointwise convergence of the SQH scheme towards a PMP consistent solution. In this ODE framework, the SQH method is applied to two optimal control problems. The first one is an optimal quantum control problem where it is shown that the SQH method converges much faster to an optimal solution than a globalized Newton method. The second optimal control problem is an optimal tumor treatment problem with a system of coupled highly non-linear state equations that describe the tumor growth. It is shown that the framework in which the convergence of the SQH scheme is proved is applicable for this highly non-linear case. Next, the case of PDE control problems is considered. First a general framework is discussed in which a solution to the corresponding optimal control problem fulfills the PMP conditions. In this case, many theoretical estimates are presented in Theorem 59 and Theorem 64 to prove in particular the essential boundedness of the state and adjoint variables. The steps for the convergence analysis of the SQH scheme are analogous to that of the ODE case and result in Theorem 27 that states the PMP consistency of the solution obtained with the SQH scheme. This framework is applied to different elliptic and parabolic optimal control problems, including linear and bilinear control mechanisms, as well as non-linear state equations. Moreover, the SQH method is discussed for solving a state-constrained optimal control problem in an augmented formulation. In this case, it is shown in Theorem 30 that for increasing the weight of the augmentation term, which penalizes the violation of the state constraint, the measure of this state constraint violation by the corresponding solution converges to zero. Furthermore, an optimal control problem with a non-smooth L\(^1\)-tracking term and a non-smooth state equation is investigated. For this purpose, an adjoint equation is defined and the SQH method is used to solve the corresponding optimal control problem. The final part of this thesis is devoted to a class of FP models related to specific stochastic processes. The discussion starts with a focus on random walks where also jumps are included. This framework allows a derivation of a discrete FP model corresponding to a continuous FP model with jumps and boundary conditions ranging from absorbing to totally reflecting. This discussion allows the consideration of the drift-control resulting from an anisotropic probability of the steps of the random walk. Thereafter, in the PMP framework, two drift-diffusion processes and the corresponding FP models with two different control strategies for an optimal control problem with an expectation functional are considered. In the first strategy, the controls depend on time and in the second one, the controls depend on space and time. In both cases a solution to the corresponding optimal control problem is characterized with the PMP conditions, stated in Theorem 48 and Theorem 49. The well-posedness of the SQH scheme is shown in both cases and further conditions are discussed that ensure the convergence of the SQH scheme to a PMP consistent solution. The case of a space and time dependent control strategy results in a special structure of the corresponding PMP conditions that is exploited in another solution method, the so-called direct Hamiltonian (DH) method.

The work at hand discusses various universality results for locally univalent and conformal metrics.
In Chapter 2 several interesting approximation results are discussed. Runge-type Theorems for holomorphic and meromorphic locally univalent functions are shown. A well-known local approximation theorem for harmonic functions due to Keldysh is generalized to solutions of the curvature equation.
In Chapter 3 and 4 these approximation theorems are used to establish universality results for locally univalent functions and conformal metrics. In particular locally univalent analogues for well-known universality results due Birkhoff, Seidel & Walsh and Heins are shown.

Lagrange Multiplier Methods for Constrained Optimization and Variational Problems in Banach Spaces
(2018)

This thesis is concerned with a class of general-purpose algorithms for constrained minimization problems, variational inequalities, and quasi-variational inequalities in Banach spaces.
A substantial amount of background material from Banach space theory, convex analysis, variational analysis, and optimization theory is presented, including some results which are refinements of those existing in the literature. This basis is used to formulate an augmented Lagrangian algorithm with multiplier safeguarding for the solution of constrained optimization problems in Banach spaces. The method is analyzed in terms of local and global convergence, and many popular problem classes such as nonlinear programming, semidefinite programming, and function space optimization are shown to be included as special cases of the general setting.
The algorithmic framework is then extended to variational and quasi-variational inequalities, which include, by extension, Nash and generalized Nash equilibrium problems. For these problem classes, the convergence is analyzed in detail. The thesis then presents a rich collection of application examples for all problem classes, including implementation details and numerical results.

This thesis discusses and proposes a solution for one problem arising from deformation quantization:
Having constructed the quantization of a classical system, one would like to understand its mathematical properties (of both the classical and quantum system). Especially if both systems are described by ∗-algebras over the field of complex numbers, this means to understand the properties of certain ∗-algebras:
What are their representations? What are the properties of these representations? How
can the states be described in these representations? How can the spectrum of the observables be
described?
In order to allow for a sufficiently general treatment of these questions, the concept of abstract O ∗-algebras is introduced. Roughly speaking, these are ∗ -algebras together with a cone of positive linear functionals on them (e.g. the continuous ones if one starts with a ∗-algebra that is endowed with a well-behaved topology). This language is then applied to two examples from deformation quantization, which will be studied in great detail.

In this thesis stability and robustness properties of systems of functional differential equations which dynamics depends on the maximum of a solution over a prehistory time interval is studied. Max-operator is analyzed and it is proved that due to its presence such kind of systems are particular case of state dependent delay differential equations with piecewise continuous delay function. They are nonlinear, infinite-dimensional and may reduce to one-dimensional along its solution. Stability analysis with respect to input is accomplished by trajectory estimate and via averaging method. Numerical method is proposed.

Given points in the plane, connect them using minimum ink. Though the task seems simple, it turns out to be very time consuming. In fact, scientists believe that computers cannot efficiently solve it. So, do we have to resign? This book examines such NP-hard network-design problems, from connectivity problems in graphs to polygonal drawing problems on the plane. First, we observe why it is so hard to optimally solve these problems. Then, we go over to attack them anyway. We develop fast algorithms that find approximate solutions that are very close to the optimal ones. Hence, connecting points with slightly more ink is not hard.

Ill-posed optimization problems appear in a wide range of mathematical applications, and their numerical solution requires the use of appropriate regularization techniques. In order to understand these techniques, a thorough analysis is inevitable.
The main subject of this book are quadratic optimal control problems subject to elliptic linear or semi-linear partial differential equations. Depending on the structure of the differential equation, different regularization techniques are employed, and their analysis leads to novel results such as rate of convergence estimates.