## 512 Algebra

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We present a technique for computing multi-branch-point covers with prescribed ramification and demonstrate the applicability of our method in relatively large degrees by computing several families of polynomials with symplectic and linear Galois groups.
As a first application, we present polynomials over \(\mathbb{Q}(\alpha,t)\) for the primitive rank-3 groups \(PSp_4(3)\) and \(PSp_4(3).C_2\) of degree 27 and for the 2-transitive group \(PSp_6(2)\) in its actions on 28 and 36 points, respectively. Moreover, the degree-28 polynomial for \(PSp_6(2)\) admits infinitely many totally real specializations.
Next, we present the first (to the best of our knowledge) explicit polynomials for the 2-transitive linear groups \(PSL_4(3)\) and \(PGL_4(3)\) of degree 40, and the imprimitive group \(Aut(PGL_4(3))\) of degree 80.
Additionally, we negatively answer a question by König whether there exists a degree-63 rational function with rational coefficients and monodromy group \(PSL_6(2)\) ramified over at least four points. This is achieved due to the explicit computation of the corresponding hyperelliptic genus-3 Hurwitz curve parameterizing this family, followed by a search for rational points on it. As a byproduct of our calculations we obtain the first explicit \(Aut(PSL_6(2))\)-realizations over \(\mathbb{Q}(t)\).
At last, we present a technique by Elkies for bounding the transitivity degree of Galois groups. This provides an alternative way to verify the Galois groups from the previous chapters and also yields a proof that the monodromy group of a degree-276 cover computed by Monien is isomorphic to the sporadic 2-transitive Conway group \(Co_3\).

We compute genus-0 Belyi maps with prescribed monodromy and strictly verify the computed results. Among the computed examples are almost simple primitive groups that satisfy the rational rigidity criterion yielding polynomials with prescribed Galois groups over Q(t). We also give an explicit version of a theorem of Magaard, which lists all sporadic groups occurring as composition factors of monodromy groups of rational functions.

This dissertation investigates the application of multivariate Chebyshev polynomials in the algebraic signal processing theory for the development of FFT-like algorithms for discrete cosine transforms on weight lattices of compact Lie groups. After an introduction of the algebraic signal processing theory, a multivariate Gauss-Jacobi procedure for the development of orthogonal transforms is proven. Two theorems on fast algorithms in algebraic signal processing, one based on a decomposition property of certain polynomials and the other based on induced modules, are proven as multivariate generalizations of prior theorems. The definition of multivariate Chebyshev polynomials based on the theory of root systems is recalled. It is shown how to use these polynomials to define discrete cosine transforms on weight lattices of compact Lie groups. Furthermore it is shown how to develop FFT-like algorithms for these transforms. Then the theory of matrix-valued, multivariate Chebyshev polynomials is developed based on prior ideas. Under an existence assumption a formula for generating functions of these matrix-valued Chebyshev polynomials is deduced.

Beatty sets (also called Beatty sequences) have appeared as early as 1772 in the astronomical studies of Johann III Bernoulli as a tool for easing manual calculations and - as Elwin Bruno Christoffel pointed out in 1888 - lend themselves to exposing intricate properties of the real irrationals. Since then, numerous researchers have explored a multitude of arithmetic properties of Beatty sets; the interrelation between Beatty sets and modular inversion, as well as Beatty sets and the set of rational primes, being the central topic of this book. The inquiry into the relation to rational primes is complemented by considering a natural generalisation to imaginary quadratic number fields.

This dissertation is dealing with three mathematical areas, namely polynomial matrices over finite fields, linear systems and coding theory.
Coprimeness properties of polynomial matrices provide criteria for the reachability and observability of interconnected linear systems. Since time-discrete linear systems over finite fields and convolutional codes are basically the same objects, these results could be transfered to criteria for non-catastrophicity of convolutional codes.
We calculate the probability that specially structured polynomial matrices are right prime. In particular, formulas for the number of pairwise coprime polynomials and for the number of mutually left coprime polynomial matrices are calculated. This leads to the probability that a parallel connected linear system is reachable and that a parallel connected convolutional codes is non-catastrophic.
Moreover, the corresponding probabilities are calculated for other networks of linear systems and convolutional codes, such as series connection.
Furthermore, the probabilities that a convolutional codes is MDP and that a clock code is MDS are approximated.
Finally, we consider the probability of finding a solution for a linear network coding problem.