## 518 Numerische Analysis

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We consider a multi-species gas mixture described by a kinetic model. More precisely, we are interested in models with BGK interaction operators. Several extensions to the standard BGK model are studied.
Firstly, we allow the collision frequency to vary not only in time and space but also with the microscopic velocity. In the standard BGK model, the dependence on the microscopic velocity is neglected for reasons of simplicity. We allow for a more physical description by reintroducing this dependence. But even though the structure of the equations remains the same, the so-called target functions in the relaxation term become more sophisticated being defined by a variational procedure.
Secondly, we include quantum effects (for constant collision frequencies). This approach influences again the resulting target functions in the relaxation term depending on the respective type of quantum particles.
In this thesis, we present a numerical method for simulating such models. We use implicit-explicit time discretizations in order to take care of the stiff relaxation part due to possibly large collision frequencies. The key new ingredient is an implicit solver which minimizes a certain potential function. This procedure mimics the theoretical derivation in the models. We prove that theoretical properties of the model are preserved at the discrete level such as conservation of mass, total momentum and total energy, positivity of distribution functions and a proper entropy behavior. We provide an array of numerical tests illustrating the numerical scheme as well as its usefulness and effectiveness.

An explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method is used to device numerical schemes for both the compressible Euler equations of gas dynamics and the ideal magneto- hydrodynamical (MHD) model. These systems of conservation laws are known to have discontinuous solutions. Discontinuities are the source of spurious oscillations in the solution profile of the numerical approximation, when a high order accurate numerical method is used. Different techniques are reviewed in order to control spurious oscillations. A shock detection technique is shown to be useful in order to determine the regions where the spurious oscillations appear such that a Limiter can be used to eliminate these numeric artifacts. To guarantee the positivity of specific variables like the density and the pressure, a positivity preserving limiter is used. Furthermore, a numerical flux, proven to preserve the entropy stability of the semi-discrete DG scheme for the MHD system is used. Finally, the numerical schemes are implemented using the deal.II C++ libraries in the dflo code. The solution of common test cases show the capability of the method.

The present thesis considers the development and analysis of arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian
discontinuous Galerkin (ALE-DG) methods with time-dependent approximation spaces for
conservation laws and the Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Fundamentals about conservation laws, Hamilton-Jacobi equations and discontinuous Galerkin
methods are presented. In particular, issues in the development of discontinuous Galerkin (DG)
methods for the Hamilton-Jacobi equations are discussed.
The development of the ALE-DG methods based on the assumption that the distribution of
the grid points is explicitly given for an upcoming time level. This assumption allows to construct a time-dependent local affine linear mapping to a reference cell and a time-dependent
finite element test function space. In addition, a version of Reynolds’ transport theorem can be
proven.
For the fully-discrete ALE-DG method for nonlinear scalar conservation laws the geometric
conservation law and a local maximum principle are proven. Furthermore, conditions for slope
limiters are stated. These conditions ensure the total variation stability of the method. In addition, entropy stability is discussed. For the corresponding semi-discrete ALE-DG method,
error estimates are proven. If a piecewise $\mathcal{P}^{k}$ polynomial approximation space is used on the reference cell, the sub-optimal $\left(k+\frac{1}{2}\right)$ convergence for monotone fuxes and the optimal $(k+1)$ convergence for an upwind flux are proven in the $\mathrm{L}^{2}$-norm. The capability of the method is shown by numerical examples for nonlinear conservation laws.
Likewise, for the semi-discrete ALE-DG method for nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations, error
estimates are proven. In the one dimensional case the optimal $\left(k+1\right)$ convergence and in the two dimensional case the sub-optimal $\left(k+\frac{1}{2}\right)$ convergence are proven in the $\mathrm{L}^{2}$-norm, if a piecewise $\mathcal{P}^{k}$ polynomial approximation space is used on the reference cell. For the fullydiscrete method, the geometric conservation is proven and for the piecewise constant forward Euler step the convergence of the method to the unique physical relevant solution is discussed.

This thesis deals with the hp-ﬁnite element method (FEM) for linear quadratic optimal control problems. Here, a tracking type functional with control costs as regularization shall be minimized subject to an elliptic partial diﬀerential equation. In the presence of control constraints, the ﬁrst order necessary conditions, which are typically used to ﬁnd optimal solutions numerically, can be formulated as a semi-smooth projection formula. Consequently, optimal solutions may be non-smooth as well. The hp-discretization technique considers this fact and approximates rough functions on ﬁne meshes while using higher order ﬁnite elements on domains where the solution is smooth.
The ﬁrst main achievement of this thesis is the successful application of hp-FEM to two related problem classes: Neumann boundary and interface control problems. They are solved with an a-priori reﬁnement strategy called boundary concentrated (bc) FEM and interface concentrated (ic) FEM, respectively. These strategies generate grids that are heavily reﬁned towards the boundary or interface. We construct an elementwise interpolant that allows to prove algebraic decay of the approximation error for both techniques. Additionally, a detailed analysis of global and local regularity of solutions, which is critical for the speed of convergence, is included. Since the bc- and ic-FEM retain small polynomial degrees for elements touching the boundary and interface, respectively, we are able to deduce novel error estimates in the L2- and L∞-norm. The latter allows an a-priori strategy for updating the regularization parameter in the objective functional to solve bang-bang problems.
Furthermore, we apply the traditional idea of the hp-FEM, i.e., grading the mesh geometrically towards vertices of the domain, for solving optimal control problems (vc-FEM). In doing so, we obtain exponential convergence with respect to the number of unknowns. This is proved with a regularity result in countably normed spaces for the variables of the coupled optimality system.
The second main achievement of this thesis is the development of a fully adaptive hp-interior point method that can solve problems with distributed or Neumann control. The underlying barrier problem yields a non-linear optimality system, which poses a numerical challenge: the numerically stable evaluation of integrals over possibly singular functions in higher order elements. We successfully overcome this diﬃculty by monitoring the control variable at the integration points and enforcing feasibility in an additional smoothing step. In this work, we prove convergence of an interior point method with smoothing step and derive a-posteriori error estimators. The adaptive mesh reﬁnement is based on the expansion of the solution in a Legendre series. The decay of the coeﬃcients serves as an indicator for smoothness that guides between h- and p-reﬁnement.