## 520 Astronomie und zugeordnete Wissenschaften

### Refine

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (24)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- yes (24)

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (17)
- Journal article (4)
- Preprint (2)
- Master Thesis (1)

#### Keywords

- Aktiver galaktischer Kern (6)
- Gammastrahlung (5)
- MAGIC-Teleskop (5)
- Astrophysik (4)
- Blazar (4)
- Radioastronomie (4)
- BL-Lacertae-Objekt (3)
- Gammaastronomie (3)
- Hydrodynamik (3)
- Mathematisches Modell (3)

#### Institute

For the understanding of the variable, transient and non-thermal universe, unbiased long-term monitoring is crucial. To constrain the emission mechanisms at the highest energies, it is important to characterize the very high energy emission and its correlation with observations at other wavelengths. At very high energies, only a limited number of instruments is available. This article reviews the current status of monitoring of the extra-galactic sky at TeV energies.

In this view point we do not change cosmology after the hot fireball starts (hence agrees well with observation), but the changed start suggested and resulting later implications lead to an even better fit with current observations (voids, supercluster and galaxy formation; matter and no antimatter) than the standard model with big bang and inflation: In an eternal ocean of qubits, a cluster of qubits crystallizes to defined bits. The universe does not jump into existence (“big bang”) but rather you have an eternal ocean of qubits in free super-position of all their quantum states (of any dimension, force field and particle type) as permanent basis. The undefined, boiling vacuum is the real “outside”, once you leave our everyday universe. A set of n Qubits in the ocean are “liquid”, in very undefined state, they have all their m possibilities for quantum states in free superposition. However, under certain conditions the qubits interact, become defined, and freeze out, crystals form and give rise to a defined, real world with all possible time series and world lines. GR holds only within the crystal. In our universe all n**m quantum possibilities are nicely separated and crystallized out to defined bit states: A toy example with 6 qubits each having 2 states illustrates, this is completely sufficient to encode space using 3 bits for x,y and z, 1 bit for particle type and 2 bits for its state. Just by crystallization, space, particles and their properties emerge from the ocean of qubits, and following the arrow of entropy, time emerges, following an arrow of time and expansion from one corner of the toy universe to everywhere else. This perspective provides time as emergent feature considering entropy: crystallization of each world line leads to defined world lines over their whole existence, while entropy ensures direction of time and higher representation of high entropy states considering the whole crystal and all slices of world lines. The crystal perspective is also economic compared to the Everett-type multiverse, each qubit has its m quantum states and n qubits interacting forming a crystal and hence turning into defined bit states has only n**m states and not more states. There is no Everett-type world splitting with every decision but rather individual world trajectories reside in individual world layers of the crystal. Finally, bit-separated crystals come and go in the qubit ocean, selecting for the ability to lay seeds for new crystals. This self-organizing reproduction selects over generations also for life-friendliness. Mathematical treatment introduces quantum action theory as a framework for a general lattice field theory extending quantum chromo dynamics where scalar fields for color interaction and gravity have to be derived from the permeating qubit-interaction field. Vacuum energy should get appropriately low by the binding properties of the qubit crystal. Connections to loop quantum gravity, string theory and emergent gravity are discussed. Standard physics (quantum computing; crystallization, solid state physics) allow validation tests of this perspective and will extend current results.

Im Rahmen eines selbst-konsistenten Outer-Gap-Modells der Pulsar-Magnetosphäre wurde die elektromagnetische sehr hochenergetische Strahlung des Crab-Pulsars simuliert. Dies wurde parallel anhand zweier verschiedener Fälle getan, die sich in den angenommenen Gleichungen für die elektrische Feldstärke und für den Krümmungsradius der magnetischen Feldlinien unterscheiden. Die Kinetik der geladenen Teilchen bei ihrer Propagation durch die Outer Gap wurde unter Einbeziehung von Krümmungsstrahlung, inverser Compton-Streuung und Triple Paarbildung betrachtet. Das theoretisch simulierte Spektrum wird mit von Fermi-LAT und von den MAGIC Teleskopen gemessenen Daten verglichen.

Our universe may have started by Qubit decoherence:
In quantum computers, qubits have all their states undefined during calculation and become defined as output (“decoherence”). We study the transition from an uncontrolled, chaotic quantum vacuum (“before”) to a clearly interacting “real world”. In such a cosmology, the Big Bang singularity is replaced by a condensation event of interacting strings. This triggers a crystallization process. This avoids inflation, not fitting current observations: increasing long-range interactions limit growth and crystal symmetries ensure the same laws of nature and basic symmetries over the whole crystal. Tiny mis-arrangements provide nuclei of superclusters and galaxies and crystal structure allows arrangement of dark (halo regions) and normal matter (galaxy nuclei) for galaxy formation. Crystals come and go: an evolutionary cosmology is explored: entropic forces from the quantum soup “outside” of the crystal try to dissolve it. This corresponds to dark energy and leads to a “big rip” in 70 Gigayears. Selection for best growth and condensation events over generations of crystals favors multiple self-organizing processes within the crystal including life or even conscious observers in our universe. Philosophically this theory shows harmony with nature and replaces absurd perspectives of current cosmology.
Independent of cosmology, we suggest that a “real world” (so our everyday macroscopic world) happens only inside a crystal. “Outside” there is wild quantum foam and superposition of all possibilities. In our crystallized world the vacuum no longer boils but is cooled down by the crystallization event, space-time exists and general relativity holds. Vacuum energy becomes 10**20 smaller, exactly as observed in our everyday world. We live in a “solid” state, within a crystal, the n quanta which build our world have all their different m states nicely separated. There are only nm states available for this local “multiverse”. The arrow of entropy for each edge of the crystal forms one fate, one world-line or clear development of our world, while layers of the crystal are different system states. Mathematical leads from loop quantum gravity (LQG) point to required interactions and potentials. Interaction potentials for strings or loop quanta of any dimension allow a solid, decoherent state of quanta challenging to calculate. However, if we introduce here the heuristic that any type of physical interaction of strings corresponds just to a type of calculation, there is already since 1898 the Hurwitz theorem showing that then only 1D, 2D, 4D and 8D (octonions) allow complex or hypercomplex number calculations. No other hypercomplex numbers and hence dimensions or symmetries are possible to allow calculations without yielding divisions by zero. However, the richest solution allowed by the Hurwitz theorem, octonions, is actually the observed symmetry of our universe, E8. Standard physics such as condensation, crystallization and magnetization but also solid-state physics and quantum computing allow us to show an initial mathematical treatment of our new theory by LQG to describe the cosmological state transformations by equations, and, most importantly, point out routes to parametrization of free parameters looking at testable phenomena, experiments and formulas that describe processes of crystallization, protein folding, magnetization, solid-state physics and quantum computing. This is presented here for LQG, for string theory it would be more elegant but was too demanding to be shown here.
Note: While my previous Opus server preprint “A new cosmology of a crystallization process (decoherence) from the surrounding quantum soup provides heuristics to unify general relativity and quantum physics by solid state physics” (https://doi.org/10.25972/OPUS-23076) deals with the same topics and basic formulas, this new version is improved: clearer in title, better introduction, more stringent in its mathematics and improved discussion of the implications including quantum computing, hints for parametrization and connections to LQG and other current cosmological efforts.
This 5th of June 2021 version is again an OPUS preprint, but this will next be edited for Archives https://arxiv.org.

Flux distribution is an important tool to understand the variability processes in activegalactic nuclei. We now have available a great deal of observational evidences pointing towards thepresence of log-normal components in the high energy light curves, and different models have beenproposed to explain these data. Here, we collect some of the recent developments on this topic usingthe well-known blazar Mrk 501 as example of complex and interesting aspects coming from its fluxdistribution in different energy ranges and at different timescales. The observational data we refer toare those collected in a complementary manner by Fermi-LAT over multiple years, and by the FirstG-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) telescope and the H.E.S.S. array in correspondence of the brightflare of June 2014

The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the high-energy astrophysical neutrino signal reported by IceCube and (2) the sizable contribution of electron neutrinos to the third neutrino mass eigenstate as reported by Daya Bay, Reno and others. To meet these objectives, the KM3NeT Collaboration plans to build a new Research Infrastructure consisting of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. A phased and distributed implementation is pursued which maximises the access to regional funds, the availability of human resources and the synergistic opportunities for the Earth and sea sciences community. Three suitable deep-sea sites are selected, namely off-shore Toulon (France), Capo Passero (Sicily, Italy) and Pylos (Peloponnese, Greece). The infrastructure will consist of three so-called building blocks. A building block comprises 115 strings, each string comprises 18 optical modules and each optical module comprises 31 photo-multiplier tubes. Each building block thus constitutes a three-dimensional array of photo sensors that can be used to detect the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic particles emerging from neutrino interactions. Two building blocks will be sparsely configured to fully explore the IceCube signal with similar instrumented volume, different methodology, improved resolution and

Interplanetary shocks are believed to play an important role in the acceleration of charged particles in the heliosphere. While the acceleration to high energies proceeds via the diffusive mechanism at the scales exceeding by far the shock width, the initial stage (injection) should occur at the shock itself. Numerical tracing of ions is done in a model quasi-perpendicular shock front with a typical interplanetary shock parameters (Mach number, upstream ion temperature). The analysis of the distribution of the transmitted solar wind is used to adjust the cross-shock potential which is not directly measured. It is found that, for typical upstream ion temperatures, acceleration of the ions from the tail of the solar wind distribution is unlikely. Pickup ions with a shell distribution are found to be effectively energized and may be injected into further diffusive acceleration regime. Pre-accelerated ions are efficiently upscaled in energies. A part of these ions is returned to the upstream region where they can further be diffusively accelerated.

This work is concerned with the numerical approximation of solutions to models that are used to describe atmospheric or oceanographic flows. In particular, this work concen- trates on the approximation of the Shallow Water equations with bottom topography and the compressible Euler equations with a gravitational potential. Numerous methods have been developed to approximate solutions of these models. Of specific interest here are the approximations of near equilibrium solutions and, in the case of the Euler equations, the low Mach number flow regime. It is inherent in most of the numerical methods that the quality of the approximation increases with the number of degrees of freedom that are used. Therefore, these schemes are often run in parallel on big computers to achieve the best pos- sible approximation. However, even on those big machines, the desired accuracy can not be achieved by the given maximal number of degrees of freedom that these machines allow. The main focus in this work therefore lies in the development of numerical schemes that give better resolution of the resulting dynamics on the same number of degrees of freedom, compared to classical schemes.
This work is the result of a cooperation of Prof. Klingenberg of the Institute of Mathe- matics in Wu¨rzburg and Prof. R¨opke of the Astrophysical Institute in Wu¨rzburg. The aim of this collaboration is the development of methods to compute stellar atmospheres. Two main challenges are tackled in this work. First, the accurate treatment of source terms in the numerical scheme. This leads to the so called well-balanced schemes. They allow for an accurate approximation of near equilibrium dynamics. The second challenge is the approx- imation of flows in the low Mach number regime. It is known that the compressible Euler equations tend towards the incompressible Euler equations when the Mach number tends to zero. Classical schemes often show excessive diffusion in that flow regime. The here devel- oped scheme falls into the category of an asymptotic preserving scheme, i.e. the numerical scheme reflects the behavior that is computed on the continuous equations. Moreover, it is shown that the diffusion of the numerical scheme is independent of the Mach number.
In chapter 3, an HLL-type approximate Riemann solver is adapted for simulations of the Shallow Water equations with bottom topography to develop a well-balanced scheme. In the literature, most schemes only tackle the equilibria when the fluid is at rest, the so called Lake at rest solutions. Here a scheme is developed to accurately capture all the equilibria of the Shallow Water equations. Moreover, in contrast to other works, a second order extension is proposed, that does not rely on an iterative scheme inside the reconstruction procedure, leading to a more efficient scheme.
In chapter 4, a Suliciu relaxation scheme is adapted for the resolution of hydrostatic equilibria of the Euler equations with a gravitational potential. The hydrostatic relations are underdetermined and therefore the solutions to that equations are not unique. However, the scheme is shown to be well-balanced for a wide class of hydrostatic equilibria. For specific classes, some quadrature rules are computed to ensure the exact well-balanced property. Moreover, the scheme is shown to be robust, i.e. it preserves the positivity of mass and energy, and stable with respect to the entropy. Numerical results are presented in order to investigate the impact of the different quadrature rules on the well-balanced property.
In chapter 5, a Suliciu relaxation scheme is adapted for the simulations of low Mach number flows. The scheme is shown to be asymptotic preserving and not suffering from excessive diffusion in the low Mach number regime. Moreover, it is shown to be robust under certain parameter combinations and to be stable from an Chapman-Enskog analysis.
Numerical results are presented in order to show the advantages of the new approach.
In chapter 6, the schemes developed in the chapters 4 and 5 are combined in order to investigate the performance of the numerical scheme in the low Mach number regime in a gravitational stratified atmosphere. The scheme is shown the be well-balanced, robust and stable with respect to a Chapman-Enskog analysis. Numerical tests are presented to show the advantage of the newly proposed method over the classical scheme.
In chapter 7, some remarks on an alternative way to tackle multidimensional simulations are presented. However no numerical simulations are performed and it is shown why further research on the suggested approach is necessary.

The most energetic versions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feature two highly-relativistic plasma outflows, so-called jets, that are created in the vicinity of the central supermassive black hole and evolve in opposite directions. In blazars, which dominate the extragalactic gamma-ray sky, the jets are aligned close to the observer's line of sight leading to strong relativistic beaming effects of the jet emission. Radio observations especially using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) provide the best way to gain direct information on the intrinsic properties of jets down to sub-parsec scales, close to their formation region.
In this thesis, I focus on the properties of three AGNs, IC 310, PKS 2004-447, and 3C 111 that belong to the small non-blazar population of gamma-ray-loud AGNs. In these kinds of AGNs, the jets are less strongly aligned with respect to the observer than in blazars. I study them in detail with a variety of radio astronomical instruments with respect to their high-energy emission and in the context of the large samples in the monitoring programmes MOJAVE and TANAMI. My analysis of radio interferometric observations and flux density monitoring data reveal very different characteristics of the jet emission in these sources. The work presented in this thesis illustrates the diversity of the radio properties of gamma-ray-loud AGNs that do not belong to the dominating class of blazars.

In this thesis, the broad band emission, especially in the gamma-ray and radio band, of the active galaxy IC 310 located in the Perseus cluster of galaxies was investigated. The main experimental methods were Cherenkov astronomy using the MAGIC telescopes and high resolution very
long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at radio frequencies (MOJAVE, EVN). Additionally, data
of the object in different energy bands were studied and a multi-wavelength campaign has been
organized and conducted. During the campaign, an exceptional bright gamma-ray flare at TeV
energies was found with the MAGIC telescopes. The results were compared to theoretical acceleration and emission models for explaining the high energy radiation of active galactic nuclei. Many open questions regarding the particle acceleration to very high energies in the jets of active galactic nuclei, the particle content of the jets, or how the jets are launched, were addressed in this thesis by investigating the variability of IC 310 in the very high energy band.
It is argued that IC310 was originally mis-classified as a head-tail radio galaxy. Instead,
it shows a variability behavior in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray band similar to the one
found for blazars. These are active galactic nuclei that are characterized by flux variability in all observed energy bands and at all observed time scales. They are viewed at a small angle between the jet axis and the line-of-sight. Thus, strong relativistic beaming influences the variability properties of blazars. Observations of IC 310 with the European VLBI Network helped to find limits for the angle between the jet axis and the line-of-sight, namely 10 deg - 20 deg. This places IC 310 at the borderline between radio galaxies (larger angles) and blazars (smaller angles).
During the gamma-ray outburst detected at the beginning of the multi-wavelength campaign, flux variability as short as minutes was measured. The spectrum during the flare can be described by a simple power-law function over two orders of magnitude in energy up to ~10 TeV. Compared to previous observations, no significant variability of the spectral shape was found. Together with the constraint on the viewing angle, this challenges the currently accepted models for particle acceleration at shock waves in the jets. Alternative models, such as stars moving through the jets, mini-jets in the jet caused, e.g., by reconnection events, or gap acceleration in a pulsar-like magnetosphere around the black hole were investigated. It was found that only the latter can explain all observational findings, which at least suggests that it could even be worthwhile to reconsider published investigations of AGN with this new knowledge in mind.
The first multi-wavelength campaign was successfully been conducted in 2012/2013, including
ground-based as well as space-based telescopes in the radio, optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and
gamma-ray energy range. No pronounced variability was found after the TeV flare in any energy band. The X-ray data showed a slightly harder spectrum when the emission was brighter. The long-term radio light curve indicated a flickering flux variability, but no strong hint for a
new jet component was found from VLBI images of the radio jet. In any case, further analysis of the existing multi-wavelength data as well as complimentary measurements could provide further exciting insights, e.g., about the broad band spectral energy distribution.
Overall, it can be stated that IC 310 is a key object for research of active galactic nuclei in
the high-energy band due to its proximity and its peculiar properties regarding flux variability
and spectral behavior. Such objects are ideally suited for studying particle acceleration, jet
formation, and other physical effects and models which are far from being fully understood.