## 530 Physik

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- D-1250-2010 (1)

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a method that measures orbital and band structure contrast through the momentum distribution of photoelectrons. Its simplest interpretation is obtained in the plane-wave approximation, according to which photoelectrons propagate freely to the detector. The photoelectron momentum distribution is then essentially given by the Fourier transform of the real-space orbital. While the plane-wave approximation is remarkably successful in describing the momentum distributions of aromatic compounds, it generally fails to capture kinetic-energy-dependent final-state interference and dichroism effects. Focusing our present study on quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene as the archetypical two-dimensional (2D) material, we observe an exemplary E\(_{kin}\)-dependent modulation of, and a redistribution of spectral weight within, its characteristic horseshoe signature around the \(\bar {K}\) and \(\bar {K´}\) points: both effects indeed cannot be rationalized by the plane-wave final state. Our data are, however, in remarkable agreement with ab initio time-dependent density functional simulations of a freestanding graphene layer and can be explained by a simple extension of the plane-wave final state, permitting the two dipole-allowed partial waves emitted from the C 2p\(_z\) orbitals to scatter in the potential of their immediate surroundings. Exploiting the absolute photon flux calibration of the Metrology Light Source, this scattered-wave approximation allows us to extract E\(_{kin}\)-dependent amplitudes and phases of both partial waves directly from photoemission data. The scattered-wave approximation thus represents a powerful yet intuitive refinement of the plane-wave final state in photoemission of 2D materials and beyond.

Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, such as binary neutron star and black hole mergers or core-collapse supernovae, can drive relativistic outflows, giving rise to non-thermal high-energy emission. High-energy neutrinos are signatures of such outflows. The detection of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos from common sources could help establish the connection between the dynamics of the progenitor and the properties of the outflow. We searched for associated emission of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical transients with minimal assumptions using data from Advanced LIGO from its first observing run O1, and data from the Antares and IceCube neutrino observatories from the same time period. We focused on candidate events whose astrophysical origins could not be determined from a single messenger. We found no significant coincident candidate, which we used to constrain the rate density of astrophysical sources dependent on their gravitational-wave and neutrino emission processes.

We demonstrate monolithic high contrast gratings (MHCG) based on GaSb/AlAs0.08Sb0.92 epitaxial structures with sub-wavelength gratings enabling high reflection of unpolarized mid-infrared radiation at the wavelength range from 2.5 to 5 µm. We study the reflectivity wavelength dependence of MHCGs with ridge widths ranging from 220 to 984 nm and fixed 2.6 µm grating period and demonstrate that peak reflectivity of above 0.7 can be shifted from 3.0 to 4.3 µm for ridge widths from 220 to 984 nm, respectively. Maximum reflectivity of up to 0.9 at 4 µm can be achieved. The experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations, confirming high process flexibility in terms of peak reflectivity and wavelength selection. MHCGs have hitherto been regarded as mirrors enabling high reflection of selected light polarization. With this work, we show that thoughtfully designed MHCG yields high reflectivity for both orthogonal polarizations simultaneously. Our experiment demonstrates that MHCGs are promising candidates to replace conventional mirrors like distributed Bragg reflectors to realize resonator based optical and optoelectronic devices such as resonant cavity enhanced light emitting diodes and resonant cavity enhanced photodetectors in the mid-infrared spectral region, for which epitaxial growth of distributed Bragg reflectors is challenging.

The topological classification of electronic band structures is based on symmetry properties of Bloch eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians. In parallel, topological field theory has opened the doors to the formulation and characterization of non-trivial phases of matter driven by strong electron-electron interaction. Even though important examples of topological Mott insulators have been constructed, the relevance of the underlying non-interacting band topology to the physics of the Mott phase has remained unexplored. Here, we show that the momentum structure of the Green’s function zeros defining the “Luttinger surface" provides a topological characterization of the Mott phase related, in the simplest description, to the one of the single-particle electronic dispersion. Considerations on the zeros lead to the prediction of new phenomena: a topological Mott insulator with an inverted gap for the bulk zeros must possess gapless zeros at the boundary, which behave as a form of “topological antimatter” annihilating conventional edge states. Placing band and Mott topological insulators in contact produces distinctive observable signatures at the interface, revealing the otherwise spectroscopically elusive Green’s function zeros.

Automated analysis of the inner ear anatomy in radiological data instead of time-consuming manual assessment is a worthwhile goal that could facilitate preoperative planning and clinical research. We propose a framework encompassing joint semantic segmentation of the inner ear and anatomical landmark detection of helicotrema, oval and round window. A fully automated pipeline with a single, dual-headed volumetric 3D U-Net was implemented, trained and evaluated using manually labeled in-house datasets from cadaveric specimen (N = 43) and clinical practice (N = 9). The model robustness was further evaluated on three independent open-source datasets (N = 23 + 7 + 17 scans) consisting of cadaveric specimen scans. For the in-house datasets, Dice scores of 0.97 and 0.94, intersection-over-union scores of 0.94 and 0.89 and average Hausdorf distances of 0.065 and 0.14 voxel units were achieved. The landmark localization task was performed automatically with an average localization error of 3.3 and 5.2 voxel units. A robust, albeit reduced performance could be
attained for the catalogue of three open-source datasets. Results of the ablation studies with 43 mono-parametric variations of the basal architecture and training protocol provided task-optimal parameters for both categories. Ablation studies against single-task variants of the basal architecture showed a clear performance beneft of coupling landmark localization with segmentation and a dataset-dependent performance impact on segmentation ability.

Minimally invasive endovascular interventions have become an important tool for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke. X-ray fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography are used to precisely guide these procedures, but they are associated with radiation exposure for patients and clinical staff. Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging technology using time-varying magnetic fields combined with magnetic nanoparticle tracers for fast and highly sensitive imaging. In recent years, basic experiments have shown that MPI has great potential for cardiovascular applications. However, commercially available MPI scanners were too large and expensive and had a small field of view (FOV) designed for rodents, which limited further translational research. The first human-sized MPI scanner designed specifically for brain imaging showed promising results but had limitations in gradient strength, acquisition time and portability. Here, we present a portable interventional MPI (iMPI) system dedicated for real-time endovascular interventions free of ionizing radiation. It uses a novel field generator approach with a very large FOV and an application-oriented open design enabling hybrid approaches with conventional X-ray-based angiography. The feasibility of a real-time iMPI-guided percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is shown in a realistic dynamic human-sized leg model.

Long-term monitoring of the ANTARES optical module efficiencies using \(^{40}\)K decays in sea water
(2018)

Cherenkov light induced by radioactive decay products is one of the major sources of background light for deep-sea neutrino telescopes such as ANTARES. These decays are at the same time a powerful calibration source. Using data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from mid 2008 to 2017, the time evolution of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is studied. A modest loss of only 20% in 9 years is observed. The relative time calibration between adjacent modules is derived as well.

Proteins fold in water and achieve a clear structure despite a huge parameter space. Inside a (protein) crystal you have everywhere the same symmetries as there is everywhere the same unit cell. We apply this to qubit interactions to do fundamental physics:
We modify cosmological inflation: we replace the big bang by a condensation event in an eternal all-encompassing ocean of free qubits. Rare interactions of qubits in the ocean provide a nucleus or seed for a new universe (domain), as the qubits become decoherent and freeze-out into defined bit ensembles. Next, we replace inflation by a crystallization event triggered by the nucleus of interacting qubits to which rapidly more and more qubits attach (like in everyday crystal growth). The crystal unit cell guarantees same symmetries (and laws of nature) everywhere inside the crystal, no inflation scenario is needed.
Interacting qubits solidify, quantum entropy decreases in the crystal, but increases outside in the ocean. The interacting qubits form a rapidly growing domain where the n**m states become separated ensemble states, rising long-range forces stop ultimately further growth. After this very early modified steps, standard cosmology with the hot fireball model takes over. Our theory agrees well with lack of inflation traces in cosmic background measurements.
Applying the Hurwitz theorem to qubits we prove that initiation of qubit interactions can only be 1,2,4 or 8-dimensional (agrees with E8 symmetry of our universe). Repulsive forces at ultrashort distances result from quantization, long-range forces limit crystal growth. The phase space of the crystal agrees with the standard model of the basic four forces for n quanta. It includes all possible ensemble combinations of their quantum states m, a total of n**m states. We describe a six-bit-ensemble toy model of qubit interaction and the repulsive forces of qubits for ultra-short distances. Neighbor states reach according to transition possibilities (S-matrix) with emergent time from entropic ensemble gradients. However, in our four dimensions there is only one bit overlap to neighbor states left (almost solid, only below Planck´s quantum is liquidity left). The E8 symmetry of heterotic string theory has six curled-up, small dimensions. These keep the qubit crystal together and never expand. We give energy estimates for free qubits vs bound qubits, misplacements in the qubit crystal and entropy increase during qubit crystal formation.
Implications are fundamental answers, e.g. why there is fine-tuning for life-friendliness, why there is string theory with rolled-up dimension and so many free parameters. We explain by cosmological crystallization instead of inflation the early creation of large-scale structure of voids and filaments, supercluster formation, galaxy formation, and the dominance of matter: the unit cell of our crystal universe has a matter handedness avoiding anti-matter. Importantly, crystals come and go in the qubit ocean. This selects for the ability to lay seeds for new crystals, for self-organization and life-friendliness. Vacuum energy gets appropriate low inside the crystal by its qubit binding energy, outside it is 10**20 higher. Scalar fields for color interaction/confinement and gravity could be derived from the qubit-interaction field.

One of the main objectives of the ANTARES telescope is the search for point- like neutrino sources. Both the pointing accuracy and the angular resolution of the detector are important in this context and a reliableway to evaluate this performance is needed. In order to measure the pointing accuracy of the detector, one possibility is to study the shadow of the Moon, i. e. the deficit of the atmospheric muon flux from the direction of the Moon induced by the absorption of cosmic rays. Analysing the data taken between 2007 and 2016, theMoon shadow is observed with 3.5s statistical significance. The detector angular resolution for downwardgoing muons is 0.73. +/- 0.14.. The resulting pointing performance is consistent with the expectations. An independent check of the telescope pointing accuracy is realised with the data collected by a shower array detector onboard of a ship temporarily moving around the ANTARES location.

We have investigated optical properties of hybrid two-dimensional-zero-dimensional (2D-0D) tunnel structures containing strongly elongated InAs/InP(001) quantum dots (called quantum dashes), emitting at 1.55 μm. These quantum dashes (QDashes) are separated by a 2.3 nm-width barrier from an InGaAs quantum well (QW), lattice matched to InP. We have tailored quantum-mechanical coupling between the states confined in QDashes and a QW by changing the QW thickness. By combining modulation spectroscopy and photoluminescence excitation, we have determined the energies of all relevant optical transitions in the system and proven the carrier transfer from the QW to the QDashes, which is the fundamental requirement for the tunnel injection scheme. A transformation between 0D and mixed-type 2D-0D character of an electron and a hole confinement in the ground state of the hybrid system have been probed by time-resolved photoluminescence that revealed considerable changes in PL decay time with the QW width changes. The experimental discoveries have been explained by band structure calculations in the framework of the eight-band k·p model showing that they are driven by delocalization of the lowest energy hole state. The hole delocalization process from the 0D QDash confinement is unfavorable for optical devices based on such tunnel injection structures.