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Magnetic systems underlie the physics of quantum mechanics when reaching the limit of few or even single atoms. This behavior limits the minimum size of magnetic bits in data storage devices as spontaneous switching of the magnetization leads to the loss of information. On the other hand, exactly these quantum mechanic properties allow to use such systems in quantum computers. Proposals to realize qubits involve the spin states of single atoms as well as topologically protected Majorana zero modes, that emerge in coupled systems of magnetic atoms in proximity to a superconductor. In order to implement and control the proposed applications, a detailed understanding of atomic spins and their interaction with the environment is required.
In this thesis, two different systems of magnetic adatoms coupled to metallic and superconducting surfaces are studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy: Co atoms on the clean Cu(111) were among the first systems exhibiting signatures of the Kondo effect in an individual atom. Yet, a recent theoretical work proposed an alternative interpretation of these early experimental results, involving a newly described many-body state. Spin-averaged and -polarized experiments in high magnetic fields presented in this thesis confirm effects beyond the Kondo effect that determine the physics in these Co atoms and suggest a potentially even richer phenomenology than proposed by theory.
The second studied system are single and coupled Fe atoms on the superconducting Nb(110) surface. Magnetic impurities on superconducting surfaces locally induce Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states inside the superconducting gap due to their pair breaking potential. Coupled systems of such impurities exhibit YSR bands and, if the bands cross the Fermi level such that the band structure is inverted, host Majorana zero modes. Using the example of Fe atoms on Nb(110), the YSR states’ dependence on the adatom–substrate interaction as well as the interatomic YSR state coupling is investigated. In the presence of oxygen on the Nb surface, the adatom–substrate interaction is shown to be heavily modified and the YSR states are found to undergo a quantum phase transition, which can be directly linked to a modified Kondo screening.
STM tips functionalized with CO molecules allow to resolve self-assembled one-dimensional chains of Fe atoms on the clean Nb(110) surface to study the YSR states’ coupling. Mapping out the states’ wave functions reveals their symmetry, which is shown to alter as a function of the states’ energy and number of atoms in the chain. These experimental results are reproduced in a simple tight-binding model, demonstrating a straightforward possibility to describe also more complex YSR systems toward engineered, potentially topologically non-trivial states.

Explaining the baryon asymmetry of the Universe has been a long-standing problem of particle physics, with the consensus being that new physics is required as the Standard Model (SM) cannot resolve this issue. Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) scenarios would need to incorporate new sources of \(CP\) violation and either introduce new departures from thermal equilibrium or modify the existing electroweak phase transition. In this thesis, we explore two approaches to baryogenesis, i.e. the generation of this asymmetry.
In the first approach, we study the two-particle irreducible (2PI) formalism as a means to investigate non-equilibrium phenomena. After arriving at the renormalised equations of motions (EOMs) to describe the dynamics of a phase transition, we discuss the techniques required to obtain the various counterterms in an on-shell scheme. To this end, we consider three truncations up to two-loop order of the 2PI effective action: the Hartree approximation, the scalar sunset approximation and the fermionic sunset approximation. We then reconsider the renormalisation procedure in an \(\overline{\text{MS}}\) scheme to evaluate the 2PI effective potential for the aforementioned truncations. In the Hartree and the scalar sunset approximations, we obtain analytic expressions for the various counterterms and subsequently calculate the effective potential by piecing together the finite contributions. For the fermionic sunset approximation, we obtain similar equations for the counterterms in terms of divergent parts of loop integrals. However, these integrals cannot be expressed in an analytic form, making it impossible to evaluate the 2PI effective potential with the fermionic contribution. Our main results are thus related to the renormalisation programme in the 2PI formalism: \( (i) \)the procedure to obtain the renormalised EOMs, now including fermions, which serve as the starting point for the transport equations for electroweak baryogenesis and \( (ii) \) the method to obtain the 2PI effective potential in a transparent manner.
In the second approach, we study baryogenesis via leptogenesis. Here, an asymmetry in the lepton sector is generated, which is then converted into the baryon asymmetry via the sphaleron process in the SM. We proceed to consider an extension of the SM along the lines of a scotogenic framework. The newly introduced particles are charged odd under a \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) symmetry, and masses for the SM neutrinos are generated radiatively. The \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) symmetry results in the lightest BSM particle being stable, allowing for a suitable dark matter (DM) candidate. Furthermore, the newly introduced heavy Majorana fermionic singlets provide the necessary sources of \(CP\) violation through their Yukawa interactions and their out-of-equilibrium decays produce a lepton asymmetry. This model is constrained from a wide range of observables, such as consistency with neutrino oscillation data, limits on branching ratios of charged lepton flavour violating decays, electroweak observables and obtaining the observed DM relic density. We study leptogenesis in this model in light of the results of a Markov chain Monte Carlo scan, implemented in consideration of the aforementioned constraints. Successful leptogenesis in this model, to account for the baryon asymmetry, then severely constrains the available parameter space.

A plethora of novel material concepts are currently being investigated in the condensed matter research community. Some of them hold promise to shape our everyday world in a way that silicon-based semiconductor materials and the related development of semiconductor devices have done in the past. In this regard, the last decades have witnessed an explosion of studies concerned with so called ‘’quantum materials’’ with emerging novel functionalities. These could eventually lead to new generations of electronic and/or spintronic devices. One particular material class, the so called topological materials, play a central role. As far as their technological applicability is concerned, however, they are still facing outstanding challenges to date.
Predicted for the first time in 2005 and experimentally verified in 2007, two-dimensional topological insulators (2D TIs) (a.k.a. quantum spin Hall insulators) exhibit the outstanding property of hosting spin-polarized metallic states along the boundaries of the insulating 2D bulk material, which are protected from elastic single-particle backscattering and give rise to the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE). Owing to these peculiar properties the QSHE holds promise for dissipationless charge and/or spin transport. However, also in today’s best 2D TIs the observation of the QSHE is still limited to cryogenic temperatures of maximum 100 K. Here, the discovery of bismuthene on SiC(0001) has marked a milestone towards a possible realization of the QSHE at or beyond room-temperature owing to the massively increased electronic bulk energy gap on the order of 1 eV. This thesis is devoted to and motivated by the goal of advancing its synthesis and to build a deeper understanding of its one-particle and two-particle electronic properties that goes beyond prior work.
Regarding the aspect of material synthesis, an improved growth procedure for bismuthene is elaborated that increases the domain size of the material considerably (by a factor of ≈ 3.2 - 6.5 compared to prior work). The improved film quality is an important step towards any future device application of bismuthene, but also facilitates all further basic studies of this material.
Moreover, the deposition of magnetic transition metals (Mn and Co) on bismuthene is investigated. Thereby, the formation of ordered magnetic Bi-Mn/Co alloys is realized, their structure is resolved with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and their pristine electronic properties are resolved with scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). It is proposed that these ordered magnetic Bi-Mn/Co-alloys offer the potential to study the interplay between magnetism and topology in bismuthene in the future.
In this thesis, a wide variety of spectroscopic techniques are employed that aim to build an understanding of the single-particle, as well as two-particle level of description of bismuthene's electronic structure. The techniques involve STS and angle-resolved PES (ARPES) on the one hand, but also optical spectroscopy and time-resolved ARPES (trARPES), on the other hand. Moreover, these experiments are accompanied by advanced numerical modelling in form of GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations provided by our theoretical colleagues. Notably, by merging many experimental and theoretical techniques, this work sets a benchmark for electronic structure investigations of 2D materials in general.
Based on the STS studies, electronic quasi-particle interferences in quasi-1D line defects in bismuthene that are reminiscent of Fabry-Pérot states are discovered. It is shown that they point to a hybridization of two pairs of helical boundary modes across the line defect, which is accompanied by a (partial) lifting of their topological protection against elastic single-particle backscattering.
Optical spectroscopy is used to reveal bismuthene's two-particle elecronic structure. Despite its monolayer thickness, a strong optical (two-particle) response due to enhanced electron-hole Coulomb interactions is observed. The presented combined experimental and theoretical approach (including GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations) allows to conclude that two prominent optical transitions can be associated with excitonic transitions derived from the Rashba-split valence bands of bismuthene. On a broader scope this discovery might promote further experiments to elucidate links of excitonic and topological physics.
Finally, the excited conduction band states of bismuthene are mapped in energy and momentum space employing trARPES on bismuthene for the first time. The direct and indirect band gaps are succesfully extracted and the effect of excited charge carrier induced gap-renormalization is observed. In addition, an exceptionally fast excited charge carrier relaxation is identified which is explained by the presence of a quasi-metallic density of states from coupled topological boundary states of domain boundaries.

The last years have witnessed an exciting scientific quest for intriguing topological phenomena in time-dependent quantum systems. A key to many manifestations of topology in dynamical systems relies on the effective dimensional extension by time-periodic drives. An archetypal example is provided by the Thouless pump in one spatial dimension, where a robust and quantized charge transport can be described in terms of an integer quantum Hall effect upon interpreting time as an extra dimension. Generalizing this fundamental concept to multifrequency driving, a variety of higher-dimensional topological models can be engineered in dynamical synthetic dimensions, where the underlying topological classification leads to quantized pumping effects in the associated lower-dimensional time-dependent systems.
In this Thesis, we explore how correlations profoundly impact the topological features of dynamical synthetic quantum materials. More precisely, we demonstrate that the interplay of interaction and dynamical synthetic dimension gives rise to striking topological phenomena that go beyond noninteracting implementations. As a starting point, we exploit the Floquet counterpart of an integer quantum Hall scenario, namely a two-level system driven by two incommensurate frequencies. In this model, the topologically quantized response translates into a process in which photons of different frequencies are exchanged between the external modes, referred to as topological frequency conversion. We extend this prototypical setup to an interacting version, focusing on the minimal case of two correlated spins equally exposed to the external drives. We show that the topological invariant determining the frequency conversion can be changed by odd integers, something explicitly forbidden in the noninteracting limit of two identical spins. This correlated topological feature may, in turn, result in an enhancement of the quantized response.
Robust response signals, such as those predicted for the topological frequency converter, are of fundamental interest for potential technological applications of topological quantum matter. Based on an open quantum system implementation of the frequency converter, we propose a novel mechanism of topological quantization coined ''topological burning glass effect''. Remarkably, this mechanism amplifies the local response of the driven two-level system by an integer that is proportional to the number of environmental degrees of freedom to which the system is strongly coupled. Specifically, our findings are illustrated by the extension of the frequency converter to a central spin model. There, the local energy transfer mediated exclusively by the central spin is significantly enhanced by the collective motion of the surrounding spins. In this sense, the central spin adopts the topological nature of the total system in its non-unitary dynamics, taking into account the correlations with the environment.

This paper reports a search for triboson \({W^\pm}{W^\pm}{W^\mp}\) production in two decay channels (\({W^\pm}{W^\pm}{W^\mp}\) → \({ℓ^\pm}{νℓ^\pm}{νℓ^\mp}{ν}\) and \({W^\pm}{W^\pm}{W^\mp}\) → \({ℓ^\pm}{νℓ^\pm}{νjj}\) with \(ℓ=e,μ\)) in proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb\(^{−1}\) at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with exactly three charged leptons, or two leptons with the same electric charge in association with two jets, are selected. The total number of events observed in data is consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The observed 95% confidence level upper limit on the SM \({W^\pm}{W^\pm}{W^\mp}\) production cross section is found to be 730 fb with an expected limit of 560 fb in the absence of SM \({W^\pm}{W^\pm}{W^\mp}\) production. Limits are also set on \(WWWW\) anomalous quartic gauge couplings.

A measurement of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This measurement is performed with 3.2 nb\(^{−1}\) of proton–proton collision data at \(\sqrt{s}\) = 7 TeV from 2010 and 0.1 nb\(^{−1}\) of data at \(\sqrt{s}\) = 8 TeV from 2012. A number of aspects of the calorimeter response to isolated hadrons are explored. After accounting for energy deposited by neutral particles, there is a 5% discrepancy in the modelling, using various sets of GEANT4 hadronic physics models, of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the central calorimeter region. The description of the response to anti-protons at low momenta is found to be improved with respect to previous analyses. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters are also examined separately, and the detector simulation is found to describe the response in the hadronic calorimeter well. The jet energy scale uncertainty and correlations in scale between jets of different momenta and pseudorapidity are derived based on these studies. The uncertainty is 2–5% for jets with transverse momenta above 2 TeV, where this method provides the jet energy scale uncertainty for ATLAS.

We calculate the next-to-leading order electroweak corrections to the production of a photon pair in association with zero, one and two jets at the LHC. We use GoSam and Sherpa to obtain the results in a fully automated way. For a typical set of fiducial cuts the electroweak corrections lead to a modification of the total cross section of up to 3%, depending on the jet multiplicity. We find substantial contributions in differential distributions, leading to tens of per cent corrections for phase space regions within the reach of the LHC. Furthermore we investigate the importance of photon induced processes as well as subleading contributions. Photon induced processes are found to be negligible, subleading contributions can have a sizeable impact however they can be removed by appropriate phase space cuts.

This thesis examines the electronic properties of two materials that promise the realization and observation of novel exotic quantum phenomena. For this purpose, angle-resolved photoemission forms the experimental basis for the investigation of the electronic properties. Furthermore, the magnetic order is investigated utilizing X-ray dichroism measurements.
First, the bulk and surface electronic structure of epitaxially grown HgTe in its three-dimensional topological insulator phase is investigated. In this study, synchrotron radiation is used to address the three-dimensional band structure and orbital composition of the bulk states by employing photon-energy-dependent and polarization-dependent measurements, respectively. In addition, the topological surface state is examined on in situ grown samples using a laboratory photon source. The resulting data provide a means to experimentally localize the bulk band inversion in momentum space and to evidence the momentum-dependent change in the orbital character of the inverted bulk states.
Furthermore, a rather new series of van der Waals compounds, (MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\))(Bi\(_2\)Te\(_3\))\(_n\), is investigated. First, the magnetic properties of the first two members of the series, MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\) and MnBi\(_4\)Te\(_7\), are studied via X-ray absorption-based techniques. The topological surface state on the two terminations of MnBi\(_4\)Te\(_7\) is analyzed using circular dichroic, photon-energy-dependent, and spin-resolved photoemission. The topological state on the (MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\))-layer termination shows a free-standing Dirac cone with its Dirac point located in the bulk band gap. In contrast, on the (Bi\(_2\)Te\(_3\))-layer termination the surface state hybridizes with the bulk valences states, forming a spectral weight gap, and exhibits a Dirac point that is buried within the bulk continuum. Lastly, the lack of unambiguous evidence in the literature showing a temperature-dependent mass gap opening in these magnetic topological insulators is discussed through MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\).

Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators are a new class of materials with properties that are
promising for potential future applications in quantum computers. For example, stanene represents
a possible candidate for a topological insulator made of Sn atoms arranged in a hexagonal
lattice. However, it has a relatively fragile low-energy spectrum and sensitive topology. Therefore,
to experimentally realize stanene in the topologically non-trivial phase, a suitable substrate
that accommodates stanene without compromising these topological properties must be found.
A heterostructure consisting of a SiC substrate with a buffer layer of adsorbed group-III elements
constitutes a possible solution for this problem. In this work, 2D adatom systems of Al and In
were grown epitaxially on SiC(0001) and then investigated structurally and spectroscopically by
scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoelectron spectroscopy.
Al films in the high coverage regime \( (\Theta_{ML}\approx2\) ML\( ) \) exhibit unusually large, triangular- and
rectangular-shaped surface unit cells. Here, the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED)
pattern is brought into accordance with the surface topography derived from STM. Another Al
reconstruction, the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Al phase, exhibits a striped surface corrugation,
which could be the result of the strain imprinted by the overlayer-substrate lattice mismatch.
It is suggested that Al atoms in different surface areas can occupy hexagonal close-packed and
face-centered cubic lattice sites, respectively, which in turn lead to close-packed transition regions
forming the stripe-like corrugations. On the basis of the well-known herringbone reconstruction
from Au(111), a first structural model is proposed, which fits well to the structural data from
STM. Ultimately, however, thermal treatments of the sample could not generate lower coverage
phases, i.e. in particular, a buffer layer structure.
Strong metallic signatures are found for In high coverage films \( (\Theta_{ML}\approx3\) to \(2\) ML\() \) by
scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES),
which form a \( (7\times7) \), \( (6\times4\sqrt{3}) \), and \( (4\sqrt{3}\times4\sqrt{3}) \) surface reconstruction. In all these In phases
electrons follow the nearly-free electron model. Similar to the Al films, thermal treatments could
not obtain the buffer layer system.
Surprisingly, in the course of this investigation a triangular In lattice featuring a \( (1\times1) \)
periodicity is observed to host massive Dirac-like bands at \( K/K^{\prime} \) in ARPES. Based on this
strong electronic similarity with graphene at the Brillouin zone boundary, this new structure is
referred to as \textit{indenene}. An extensive theoretical analysis uncovers the emergence of an electronic
honeycomb network based on triangularly arranged In \textit{p} orbitals. Due to strong atomic spin-orbit
coupling and a comparably small substrate-induced in-plane inversion symmetry breaking this
material system is rendered topologically non-trivial. In indenene, the topology is intimately
linked to a bulk observable, i.e., the energy-dependent charge accumulation sequence within the
surface unit cell, which is experimentally exploited in STS to confirm the non-trivial topological
character. The band gap at \( K/K^{\prime} \), a signature of massive Dirac fermions, is estimated by
ARPES to approximately 125 meV. Further investigations by X-ray standing wave, STM, and
LEED confirm the structural properties of indenene. Thus, this thesis presents the growth and
characterization of the novel quantum spin Hall insulator material indenene.

Breaking inversion symmetry in crystalline solids enables the formation of spin-polarized electronic states by spin-orbit coupling without the need for magnetism. A variety of interesting physical phenomena related to this effect have been intensively investigated in recent years, including the Rashba effect, topological insulators and Weyl semimetals. In this work, the interplay of inversion symmetry breaking and spin-orbit coupling and, in particular their general influence on the character of electronic states, i.e., on the spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is investigated experimentally. Two different types of suitable model systems are studied: two-dimensional surface states for which the Rashba effect arises from the inherently broken inversion symmetry at the surface, and a Weyl semimetal, for which inversion symmetry is broken in the three-dimensional crystal structure. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy provides momentum-resolved access to the spin polarization and the orbital composition of electronic states by means of photoelectron spin detection and dichroism with polarized light. The experimental results shown in this work are also complemented and supported by ab-initio density functional theory calculations and simple model considerations.
Altogether, it is shown that the breaking of inversion symmetry has a decisive influence on the Bloch wave function, namely, the formation of an orbital angular momentum. This mechanism is, in turn, of fundamental importance both for the physics of the surface Rashba effect and the topology of the Weyl semimetal TaAs.