## 539 Moderne Physik

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- Doctoral Thesis (21)

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- ATLAS detector (19)
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- Higgs boson (12)
- systematic uncertainty (9)
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In this thesis we consider the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for simulations of the Hubbard and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. In the first instance, we discuss the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for the Hubbard model on a square lattice. We point out potential ergodicity issues and provide a way to circumvent them by a complexification of the method. Furthermore, we compare the efficiency of the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method with a well established determinantal quantum Monte Carlo method for simulations of the half-filled Hubbard model on square lattices. One reason why the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method loses the comparison is that we do not observe the desired sub-quadratic scaling of the numerical effort. Afterwards we present a formulation of the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model in two dimensions. Electron-phonon models like this are in general very hard to simulate using other Monte Carlo methods in more than one dimensions. It turns out that the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method is much better suited for this model . We achieve favorable scaling properties and provide a proof of concept. Subsequently, we use the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method to investigate the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model in detail at half-filling in two dimensions. We present numerical data for staggered valence bond order at small phonon frequencies and an antiferromagnetic order at high frequencies. Due to an O(4) symmetry the antiferromagnetic order is connected to a superconducting charge density wave. Considering the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model without tight-binding hopping reveals an additional unconstrained Z_2 gauge theory. In this case, we find indications for π-fluxes and a possible Z_2 Dirac deconfined phase as well as for a columnar valence bond ordered state at low phonon energies. In our investigations of the several phase transitions we discuss the different possibilities for the underlying mechanisms and reveal first insights into a rich phase diagram.

We develop the formalism of holographic renormalization to compute two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model. The model describes a (0 + 1)-dimensional impurity spin of a gauged SU(N ) interacting with a (1 + 1)-dimensional, large-N , strongly-coupled Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We describe the impurity using Abrikosov pseudo-fermions, and define an SU(N )-invariant scalar operator O built from a pseudo-fermion and a CFT fermion. At large N the Kondo interaction is of the form O\(^{†}\)O, which is marginally relevant, and generates a Renormalization Group (RG) flow at the impurity. A second-order mean-field phase transition occurs in which O condenses below a critical temperature, leading to the Kondo effect, including screening of the impurity. Via holography, the phase transition is dual to holographic superconductivity in (1 + 1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. At all temperatures, spectral functions of O exhibit a Fano resonance, characteristic of a continuum of states interacting with an isolated resonance. In contrast to Fano resonances observed for example in quantum dots, our continuum and resonance arise from a (0 + 1)-dimensional UV fixed point and RG flow, respectively. In the low-temperature phase, the resonance comes from a pole in the Green’s function of the form −i〈O〉\(^{2}\), which is characteristic of a Kondo resonance.

We analyze the concomitant spontaneous breaking of translation and conformal symmetries by introducing in a CFT a complex scalar operator that acquires a spatially dependent expectation value. The model, inspired by the holographic Q-lattice, provides a privileged setup to study the emergence of phonons from a spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a conformal field theory and offers valuable hints for the treatment of phonons in QFT at large. We first analyze the Ward identity structure by means of standard QFT techniques, considering both spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking. Next, by implementing holographic renormalization, we show that the same set of Ward identities holds in the holographic Q-lattice. Eventually, relying on the holographic and QFT results, we study the correlators realizing the symmetry breaking pattern and how they encode information about the low-energy spectrum.

We present the computer code RECOLA2 along with the first NLO electroweak corrections to Higgs production in vector-boson fusion and updated results for Higgs strahlung in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model and Higgs-Singlet extension of the Standard Model. A fully automated procedure for the generation of tree-level and one-loop matrix elements in general models, including renormalization, is presented. We discuss the application of the Background-Field Method to the extended models. Numerical results for NLO electroweak cross sections are presented for different renormalization schemes in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model and the Higgs-Singlet extension of the Standard Model. Finally, we present distributions for the production of a heavy Higgs boson.

In recent years many discoveries have been made that reveal a close relation between quantum information and geometry in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this duality between a conformal quantum field theory (CFT) and a theory of gravity on Anti-de Sitter spaces (AdS) quantum information quantities in CFT are associated with geometric objects in AdS. Subject of this thesis is the examination of this intriguing property of AdS/CFT. We study two central elements of quantum information: subregion complexity -- which is a measure for the effort required to construct a given reduced state -- and the modular Hamiltonian -- which is given by the logarithm of a considered reduced state.
While a clear definition for subregion complexity in terms of unitary gates exists for discrete systems, a rigorous formulation for quantum field theories is not known.
In AdS/CFT, subregion complexity is proposed to be related to certain codimension one regions on the AdS side.
The main focus of this thesis lies on the examination of such candidates for gravitational duals of subregion complexity.
We introduce the concept of \textit{topological complexity}, which considers subregion complexity to be given by the integral over the Ricci scalar of codimension one regions in AdS. The Gauss-Bonnet theorem provides very general expressions for the topological complexity of CFT\(_2\) states dual to global AdS\(_3\), BTZ black holes and conical defects. In particular, our calculations show that the topology of the considered codimension one bulk region plays an essential role for topological complexity.
Moreover, we study holographic subregion complexity (HSRC), which associates the volume of a particular codimension one bulk region with subregion complexity. We derive an explicit field theory expression for the HSRC of vacuum states. The formulation of HSRC in terms of field theory quantities may allow to investigate whether this bulk object indeed provides a concept of subregion complexity on the CFT side. In particular, if this turns out to be the case, our expression for HSRC may be seen as a field theory definition of subregion complexity. We extend our expression to states dual to BTZ black holes and conical defects.
A further focus of this thesis is the modular Hamiltonian of a family of states \(\rho_\lambda\) depending on a continuous parameter \(\lambda\). Here \(\lambda\) may be associated with the energy density or the temperature, for instance.
The importance of the modular Hamiltonian for quantum information is due to its contribution to relative entropy -- one of the very few objects in quantum information with a rigorous definition for quantum field theories.
The first order contribution in \(\tilde{\lambda}=\lambda-\lambda_0\) of the modular Hamiltonian to the relative entropy between \(\rho_\lambda\) and a reference state \(\rho_{\lambda_0}\) is provided by the first law of entanglement. We study under which circumstances higher order contributions in \(\tilde{\lambda}\) are to be expected.
We show that for states reduced to two entangling regions \(A\), \(B\) the modular Hamiltonian of at least one of these regions is expected to provide higher order contributions in \(\tilde{\lambda}\) to the relative entropy if \(A\) and \(B\) saturate the Araki-Lieb inequality. The statement of the Araki-Lieb inequality is that the difference between the entanglement entropies of \(A\) and \(B\) is always smaller or equal to the entanglement entropy of the union of \(A\) and \(B\).
Regions for which this inequality is saturated are referred to as entanglement plateaux. In AdS/CFT the relation between geometry and quantum information provides many examples for entanglement plateaux. We apply our result to several of them, including large intervals for states dual to BTZ black holes and annuli for states dual to black brane geometries.

The production of a neutral and a charged vector boson with subsequent decays into three charged leptons and a neutrino is a very important process for precision tests of the Standard Model of elementary particles and in searches for anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. In this article, the first computation of next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to the production of the four-lepton final states μ\(^{+}\)μ\(^{−}\)e\(^{+}\)ν\(_{e}\), μ\(^{+}\)μ\(^{−}\)e\(^{−}\)ν\(_{e}\), μ\(^{+}\)μ\(^{−}\)μ\(^{+}\)ν\(_{μ}\), and μ\(^{+}\)μ\(^{−}\)μ\(^{−}\)ν\(_{μ}\) at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We use the complete matrix elements at leading and next-to-leading order, including all off-shell effects of intermediate massive vector bosons and virtual photons. The relative electroweak corrections to the fiducial cross sections from quark-induced partonic processes vary between −3% and −6%, depending significantly on the event selection. At the level of differential distributions, we observe large negative corrections of up to −30% in the high-energy tails of distributions originating from electroweak Sudakov logarithms. Photon-induced contributions at next-to-leading order raise the leading-order fiducial cross section by +2%. Interference effects in final states with equal-flavour leptons are at the permille level for the fiducial cross section, but can lead to sizeable effects in off-shell sensitive phase-space regions.

Complete NLO corrections to W\(^{+}\)W\(^{+}\) scattering and its irreducible background at the LHC
(2017)

The process pp → μ\(^{+}\)ν\(_{μ}\)e\(^{+}\)ν\(_{e}\)jj receives several contributions of different orders in the strong and electroweak coupling constants. Using appropriate event selections, this process is dominated by vector-boson scattering (VBS) and has recently been measured at the LHC. It is thus of prime importance to estimate precisely each contribution. In this article we compute for the first time the full NLO QCD and electroweak corrections to VBS and its irreducible background processes with realistic experimental cuts. We do not rely on approximations but use complete amplitudes involving two different orders at tree level and three different orders at one-loop level. Since we take into account all interferences, at NLO level the corrections to the VBS process and to the QCD-induced irreducible background process contribute at the same orders. Hence the two processes cannot be unambiguously distinguished, and all contributions to the μ\(^{+}\)ν\(_{μ}\)e\(^{+}\)ν\(_{e}\)jj final state should be preferably measured together.

The dependence of the rate of proton–proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, √s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurement of the inelastic proton–proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, √s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic cross-section of 60.3±2.1 mb is measured for ξ>5×10−6, where ξ is calculated from the invariant mass, MX, of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV.

The measurement of the mass of the $W$ boson is currently one of the most promising precision analyses of the Standard Model, that could ultimately reveal a hint for new physics.
The mass of the $W$ boson is determined by comparing the $W$ boson, which cannot be reconstructed directly, to the $Z$ boson, where the full decay signature is available. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations one can extrapolate from the $Z$ boson to the $W$ boson.
Technically speaking, the measurement of the $W$ boson mass is performed by comparing data taken by the ATLAS experiment to a set of calibrated Monte Carlo simulations, which reflect different mass hypotheses.\
A dedicated calibration of the reconstructed objects in the simulations is crucial for a high precision of the measured value.
The comparison of simulated $Z$ boson events to reconstructed $Z$ boson candidates in data allows to derive event weights and scale factors for the calibration.
This thesis presents a new approach to reweight the hadronic recoil in the simulations. The focus of the calibration is on the average hadronic activity visible in the mean of the scalar sum of the hadronic recoil $\Sigma E_T$ as a function of pileup. In contrast to the standard method, which directly reweights the scalar sum, the dependency to the transverse boson momentum is less strongly affected here.
The $\Sigma E_T$ distribution is modeled first by means of its pileup dependency. Then, the remaining differences in the resolution of the vector sum of the hadronic recoil are scaled. This is done separately for the parallel and the pterpendicular component of the hadronic recoil with respect to the reconstructed boson.
This calibration was developed for the dataset taken by the ATLAS experiment at a center of mass energy of $8\,\textrm{TeV}$ in 2012. In addition, the same reweighting procedure is applied to the recent dataset with a low pileup contribution, the \textit{lowMu} runs at $5\,\textrm{TeV}$ and at $13\,\textrm{TeV}$, taken by ATLAS in November 2017. The dedicated aspects of the reweighting procedure are presented in this thesis. It can be shown that this reweighting approach improves the agreement between data and the simulations effectively for all datasets.
The uncertainties of this reweighting approach as well as the statistical errors are evaluated for a $W$ mass measurement by a template fit to pseudodata for the \textit{lowMu} dataset. A first estimate of these uncertainties is given here. For the pfoEM algorithm a statistical uncertainty of $17\,\text{MeV}$ for the $5\,\textrm{TeV}$ dataset and of $18\,\text{MeV}$ for the $13\,\textrm{TeV}$ are found for the $W \rightarrow \mu \nu$ analysis. The systematic uncertainty introduced by the resolution scaling has the largest effect, a value of $15\,\text{MeV}$ is estimated for the $13\,\textrm{TeV}$ dataset in the muon channel.

The quest for finding a unifying theory for both quantum theory and gravity lies at the heart of much of the research in high energy physics. Although recent years have witnessed spectacular experimental confirmation of our expectations from Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity, the question of unification remains as a major open problem. In this context, the perturbative aspects of quantum black holes represent arguably the best of our knowledge of how to proceed in this pursue.
In this thesis we investigate certain aspects of quantum gravity in 2 + 1 dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS3), and its connection to Conformal field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions (CFT2), via the AdS/CFT correspondence.
We study the thermodynamics properties of higher spin black holes. By focusing on the spin-4 case, we show that black holes carrying higher spin charges display a rich phase diagram in the grand canonical ensemble, including phase transitions of the Hawking-Page type, first order inter-black hole transitions, and a second order critical point.
We investigate recent proposals on the connection between bulk codimension-1 volumes and computational complexity in the CFT. Using Tensor Networks we provide concrete evidence of why these bulk volumes are related to the number of gates in a quantum circuit, and exhibit their topological properties. We provide a novel formula to compute this complexity directly in terms of entanglement entropies, using techniques from Kinematic space.
We then move in a slightly different direction, and study the quantum properties of black holes via de Functional Renormalisation Group prescription coming from Asymptotic safety. We avoid the arbitrary scale setting by restricting to a narrower window in parameter space, where only Newton’s coupling and the cosmological constant are allowed to vary. By one assumption on the properties of Newton’s coupling, we find black hole solutions explicitly. We explore their thermodynamical properties, and discover that very large black holes exhibit very unusual features.