## 539 Moderne Physik

### Refine

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (169)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- yes (169)

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- Journal article (130)
- Doctoral Thesis (38)
- Working Paper (1)

#### Keywords

- Hadron-Hadron scattering (experiments) (28)
- High energy physics (25)
- ATLAS detector (19)
- hadron-hadron scattering (15)
- proton-proton collision (14)
- Higgs boson (12)
- physics (9)
- systematic uncertainty (9)
- jet energy scale (8)
- ATLAS (7)

#### Institute

#### Sonstige beteiligte Institutionen

#### ResearcherID

- N-7500-2014 (1)

#### EU-Project number / Contract (GA) number

- 307955 (1)
- 316704 (1)
- 336012 (1)
- PITN-GA-2012-316704 (1)

This thesis examines the electronic properties of two materials that promise the realization and observation of novel exotic quantum phenomena. For this purpose, angle-resolved photoemission forms the experimental basis for the investigation of the electronic properties. Furthermore, the magnetic order is investigated utilizing X-ray dichroism measurements.
First, the bulk and surface electronic structure of epitaxially grown HgTe in its three-dimensional topological insulator phase is investigated. In this study, synchrotron radiation is used to address the three-dimensional band structure and orbital composition of the bulk states by employing photon-energy-dependent and polarization-dependent measurements, respectively. In addition, the topological surface state is examined on in situ grown samples using a laboratory photon source. The resulting data provide a means to experimentally localize the bulk band inversion in momentum space and to evidence the momentum-dependent change in the orbital character of the inverted bulk states.
Furthermore, a rather new series of van der Waals compounds, (MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\))(Bi\(_2\)Te\(_3\))\(_n\), is investigated. First, the magnetic properties of the first two members of the series, MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\) and MnBi\(_4\)Te\(_7\), are studied via X-ray absorption-based techniques. The topological surface state on the two terminations of MnBi\(_4\)Te\(_7\) is analyzed using circular dichroic, photon-energy-dependent, and spin-resolved photoemission. The topological state on the (MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\))-layer termination shows a free-standing Dirac cone with its Dirac point located in the bulk band gap. In contrast, on the (Bi\(_2\)Te\(_3\))-layer termination the surface state hybridizes with the bulk valences states, forming a spectral weight gap, and exhibits a Dirac point that is buried within the bulk continuum. Lastly, the lack of unambiguous evidence in the literature showing a temperature-dependent mass gap opening in these magnetic topological insulators is discussed through MnBi\(_2\)Te\(_4\).

Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators are a new class of materials with properties that are
promising for potential future applications in quantum computers. For example, stanene represents
a possible candidate for a topological insulator made of Sn atoms arranged in a hexagonal
lattice. However, it has a relatively fragile low-energy spectrum and sensitive topology. Therefore,
to experimentally realize stanene in the topologically non-trivial phase, a suitable substrate
that accommodates stanene without compromising these topological properties must be found.
A heterostructure consisting of a SiC substrate with a buffer layer of adsorbed group-III elements
constitutes a possible solution for this problem. In this work, 2D adatom systems of Al and In
were grown epitaxially on SiC(0001) and then investigated structurally and spectroscopically by
scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoelectron spectroscopy.
Al films in the high coverage regime \( (\Theta_{ML}\approx2\) ML\( ) \) exhibit unusually large, triangular- and
rectangular-shaped surface unit cells. Here, the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED)
pattern is brought into accordance with the surface topography derived from STM. Another Al
reconstruction, the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Al phase, exhibits a striped surface corrugation,
which could be the result of the strain imprinted by the overlayer-substrate lattice mismatch.
It is suggested that Al atoms in different surface areas can occupy hexagonal close-packed and
face-centered cubic lattice sites, respectively, which in turn lead to close-packed transition regions
forming the stripe-like corrugations. On the basis of the well-known herringbone reconstruction
from Au(111), a first structural model is proposed, which fits well to the structural data from
STM. Ultimately, however, thermal treatments of the sample could not generate lower coverage
phases, i.e. in particular, a buffer layer structure.
Strong metallic signatures are found for In high coverage films \( (\Theta_{ML}\approx3\) to \(2\) ML\() \) by
scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES),
which form a \( (7\times7) \), \( (6\times4\sqrt{3}) \), and \( (4\sqrt{3}\times4\sqrt{3}) \) surface reconstruction. In all these In phases
electrons follow the nearly-free electron model. Similar to the Al films, thermal treatments could
not obtain the buffer layer system.
Surprisingly, in the course of this investigation a triangular In lattice featuring a \( (1\times1) \)
periodicity is observed to host massive Dirac-like bands at \( K/K^{\prime} \) in ARPES. Based on this
strong electronic similarity with graphene at the Brillouin zone boundary, this new structure is
referred to as \textit{indenene}. An extensive theoretical analysis uncovers the emergence of an electronic
honeycomb network based on triangularly arranged In \textit{p} orbitals. Due to strong atomic spin-orbit
coupling and a comparably small substrate-induced in-plane inversion symmetry breaking this
material system is rendered topologically non-trivial. In indenene, the topology is intimately
linked to a bulk observable, i.e., the energy-dependent charge accumulation sequence within the
surface unit cell, which is experimentally exploited in STS to confirm the non-trivial topological
character. The band gap at \( K/K^{\prime} \), a signature of massive Dirac fermions, is estimated by
ARPES to approximately 125 meV. Further investigations by X-ray standing wave, STM, and
LEED confirm the structural properties of indenene. Thus, this thesis presents the growth and
characterization of the novel quantum spin Hall insulator material indenene.

Breaking inversion symmetry in crystalline solids enables the formation of spin-polarized electronic states by spin-orbit coupling without the need for magnetism. A variety of interesting physical phenomena related to this effect have been intensively investigated in recent years, including the Rashba effect, topological insulators and Weyl semimetals. In this work, the interplay of inversion symmetry breaking and spin-orbit coupling and, in particular their general influence on the character of electronic states, i.e., on the spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is investigated experimentally. Two different types of suitable model systems are studied: two-dimensional surface states for which the Rashba effect arises from the inherently broken inversion symmetry at the surface, and a Weyl semimetal, for which inversion symmetry is broken in the three-dimensional crystal structure. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy provides momentum-resolved access to the spin polarization and the orbital composition of electronic states by means of photoelectron spin detection and dichroism with polarized light. The experimental results shown in this work are also complemented and supported by ab-initio density functional theory calculations and simple model considerations.
Altogether, it is shown that the breaking of inversion symmetry has a decisive influence on the Bloch wave function, namely, the formation of an orbital angular momentum. This mechanism is, in turn, of fundamental importance both for the physics of the surface Rashba effect and the topology of the Weyl semimetal TaAs.

Schon heute bilden Einzelphotonenquellen einen wichtigen Baustein in der Photonik
und Quanteninformation. Der Fokus der Forschung liegt entsprechend auf dem
Finden und Charakterisieren dafür geeigneter Materialsysteme. Konkret beschäftigt
sich die vorliegende Arbeit vorwiegend mit dem Übergangsmetall-Dichalkogenid
(TMDC1 ) Wolframdiselenid und seinen Eigenschaften. Diese Wahl ist durch den
direkte Zugang zu Einzelphotonenquellen begründet, die sich in dessen Monolagen
ausbilden können. Diese Lichtquellen können über eine Modulation der Verspannung
der Monolage gezielt aktiviert werden. Durch die, verglichen mit ihrem Volumen,
riesige Kontaktfläche lassen sich Monolagen zudem mit Hilfe des Substrats, auf das
sie transferiert wurden, wesentlich beeinflussen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden
Monolagen von WSe2 in unterschiedlichen Bauteilen wie zirkulare Bragg-Gittern oder
vorstrukturierten, metallischen Oberflächen implementiert und die Photolumineszenz
des TMDCs untersucht. Diese Arbeit belegt die Möglichkeit, Einzelphotonenquellen basierend
aufWSe2 -Monolagen auf verschiedenste Weise modulieren zu können. Dank ihrer zwei-
dimensionalen Geometrie lassen sie sich einfach in bestehende Strukturen integrieren
oder auch in der Zukunft mit weiteren 2D-Materialien kombinieren.

Emergent phenomena in condensed matter physics like, e.g., magnetism, superconductivity, or non-trivial topology often come along with a surprise and exert great fascination to researchers up to this day. Within this thesis, we are concerned with the analysis of associated types of order that arise due to strong electronic interactions and focus on the high-\(T_c\) cuprates and Kondo systems as two prime candidates. The underlying many-body problem cannot be solved analytically and has given rise to the development of various approximation techniques to tackle the problem.
In concrete terms, we apply the auxiliary particle approach to investigate tight-binding Hamiltonians subject to a Hubbard interaction term to account for the screened Coulomb repulsion. Thereby, we adopt the so-called Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave-boson representation that reduces the problem to non-interacting quasiparticles within a mean-field approximation. Part I provides a pedagogical review of the theory and generalizes the established formalism to encompass Gaussian fluctuations around magnetic ground states as a crucial step to obtaining novel results.
Part II addresses the two-dimensional one-band Hubbard model, which is known to approximately describe the physics of the high-\(T_c\) cuprates that feature high-temperature superconductivity and various other exotic quantum phases that are not yet fully understood. First, we provide a comprehensive slave-boson analysis of the model, including the discussion of incommensurate magnetic phases, collective modes, and a comparison to other theoretical methods that shows that our results can be massively improved through the newly implemented fluctuation corrections. Afterward, we focus on the underdoped regime and find an intertwining of spin and charge order signaled by divergences of the static charge susceptibility within the antiferromagnetic domain. There is experimental evidence for such inhomogeneous phases in various cuprate materials, which has recently aroused interest because such correlations are believed to impact the formation of Cooper pairs. Our analysis identifies two distinct charge-ordering vectors, one of which can be attributed to a Fermi-surface nesting effect and quantitatively fits experimental data in \(\mathrm{Nd}_{2-\mathrm{x}}\mathrm{Ce}_\mathrm{x}\mathrm{CuO}_4\) (NCCO), an electron-doped cuprate compound. The other resembles the so-called Yamada relation implying the formation of periodic, double-occupied domain walls with a crossover to phase separation for small dopings.
Part III investigates Kondo systems by analyzing the periodic Anderson model and its generalizations. First, we consider Kondo metals and detect weakly magnetized ferromagnetic order in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, which hinders the formation of heavy fermions. Nevertheless, we suggest two different parameter regimes that could host a possible Kondo regime in the context of one or two conduction bands. The part is concluded with the study of topological order in Kondo insulators based on a three-dimensional model with centrosymmetric spin-orbit coupling. Thereby, we classify topologically distinct phases through appropriate \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) invariants and consider paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic mean-field ground states. Our model parameters are chosen to specifically describe samarium hexaboride (\(\mbox{SmB}_6\)), which is widely believed to be a topological Kondo insulator, and we identify topologically protected surface states in agreement with experimental evidence in that material. Moreover, our theory predicts the emergence of an antiferromagnetic topological insulator featuring one-dimensional hinge-states as the signature of higher-order topology in the strong coupling regime. While the nature of the true ground state is still under debate, corresponding long-range magnetic order has been observed in pressurized or alloyed \(\mbox{SmB}_6\), and recent experimental findings point towards non-trivial topology under these circumstances. The ability to understand and control topological systems brings forth promising applications in the context of spintronics and quantum computing.

Ratios of top-quark pair to \(Z\)-boson cross sections measured from proton-proton collisions at the LHC centre-of-mass energies of \(\sqrt{s}\) = 13 TeV, 8 TeV, and 7 TeV are presented by the ATLAS Collaboration. Single ratios, at a given \(\sqrt{s}\) for the two processes and at different \(\sqrt{s}\) for each process, as well as double ratios of the two processes at different \(\sqrt{s}\), are evaluated. The ratios are constructed using previously published ATLAS measurements of the \({t\overline{t}}\) and \(Z\)-boson production cross sections, corrected to a common phase space where required, and a new analysis of \(Z\) → ℓ\(^+\)ℓ\(^-\) where ℓ = \(e, µ\) at \(\sqrt{s}\) = 13 TeV performed with data collected in 2015 with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb\(^−1\). Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account when evaluating the uncertainties in the ratios. The correlation model is also used to evaluate the combined cross section of the \(Z\) → \(e\)\(^+\)\(e\)\(^−\) and the \(Z\) → \(µ\)\(^+\)\(µ\)\(^−\) channels for each \(\sqrt{s}\) value. The results are compared to calculations performed at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy using recent sets of parton distribution functions. The data demonstrate significant power to constrain the gluon distribution function for the Bjorken-\(x\) values near 0.1 and the light-quark sea for \(x\) < 0.02.

Same- and opposite-sign charge asymmetries are measured in lepton+jets \({t\overline{t}}\) events in which a \(b\)-hadron decays semileptonically to a soft muon, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb\(^{−1}\) from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of \(\sqrt{s}\) = 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The charge asymmetries are based on the charge of the lepton from the top-quark decay and the charge of the soft muon from the semileptonic decay of a \(b\)-hadron and are measured in a fiducial region corresponding to the experimental acceptance. Four CP asymmetries (one mixing and three direct) are measured and are found to be compatible with zero and consistent with the Standard Model.

In this thesis, I study entanglement in quantum field theory, using methods from operator algebra theory. More precisely, the thesis covers original research on the entanglement properties of the free fermionic field. After giving a pedagogical introduction to algebraic methods in quantum field theory, as well as the modular theory of Tomita-Takesaki and its relation to entanglement, I present a coherent framework that allows to solve Tomita-Takesaki theory for free fermionic fields in any number of dimensions. Subsequently, I use the derived machinery on the free massless fermion in two dimensions, where the formulae can be evaluated analytically. In particular, this entails the derivation of the resolvent of restrictions of the propagator, by means of solving singular integral equations. In this way, I derive the modular flow, modular Hamiltonian, modular correlation function, R\'enyi entanglement entropy, von-Neumann entanglement entropy, relative entanglement entropy, and mutual information for multi-component regions. All of this is done for the vacuum and thermal states, both on the infinite line and the circle with (anti-)periodic boundary conditions. Some of these results confirm previous results from the literature, such as the modular Hamiltonian and entanglement entropy in the vacuum state. The non-universal solutions for modular flow, modular correlation function, and R\'enyi entropy, however are new, in particular at finite temperature on the circle. Additionally, I show how boundaries of spacetime affect entanglement, as well as how one can define relative (entanglement) entropy and mutual information in theories with superselection rules. The findings regarding modular flow in multi-component regions can be summarised as follows: In the non-degenerate vacuum state, modular flow is multi-local, in the sense that it mixes the field operators along multiple trajectories, with one trajectory per component. This was already known from previous literature but is presented here in a more explicit form. In particular, I present the exact solution for the dynamics of the mixing process. What was not previously known at all, is that the modular flow of the thermal state on the circle is infinitely multi-local even for a connected region, in the sense that it mixes the field along an infinite, discretely distributed set, of trajectories. In the limit of high temperatures, all trajectories but the local one are pushed towards the boundary of the region, where their amplitude is damped exponentially, leaving only the local result. At low temperatures, on the other hand, these trajectories distribute densely in the region to either---for anti-periodic boundary conditions---cancel, or---for periodic boundary conditions---recover the non-local contribution due to the degenerate vacuum state. Proceeding to spacetimes with boundaries, I show explicitly how the presence of a boundary implies entanglement between the two components of the Dirac spinor. By computing the mutual information between the components inside a connected region, I show quantitatively that this entanglement decreases as an inverse square law at large distances from the boundary. In addition, full conformal symmetry (which is explicitly broken due to the presence of a boundary) is recovered from the exact solution for modular flow, far away from the boundary. As far as I know, all of these results are new, although related results were published by another group during the final stage of this thesis. Finally, regarding relative entanglement entropy in theories with superselection sectors, I introduce charge and flux resolved relative entropies, which are novel measures for the distinguishability of states, incorporating a charge operator, central to the algebra of observables. While charge resolved relative entropy has the interpretation of being a ``distinguishability per charge sector'', I argue that it is physically meaningless without placing a cutoff, due to infinite short-distance entanglement. Flux resolved relative entropy, on the other hand, overcomes this problem by inserting an Aharonov-Bohm flux and thus passing to a variant of the grand canonical ensemble. It takes a well defined value, even without putting a cutoff, and I compute its value between various states of the free massless fermion on the line, the charge operator being the total fermion number.

A measurement of the \(ZZ\) production cross section in the \(ℓ^−ℓ^+ℓ^{′−}ℓ^{′+}\) and \(ℓ^−ℓ^+{ν\overline{ν}}\) channels (ℓ = e, µ) in proton-proton collisions at \(\sqrt{s}\) = 8TeV at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb\(^{−1}\) collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2012 is presented. The fiducial cross sections for \(ZZ\) → \(ℓ^−ℓ^+ℓ^{′−}ℓ^{′+}\) and \(ZZ\) → \(ℓ^−ℓ^+{ν\overline{ν}}\) are measured in selected phase-space regions. The total cross section for \(ZZ\) events produced with both \(Z\) bosons in the mass range 66 to 116GeV is measured from the combination of the two channels to be 7.3 ± 0.4(stat) ± 0.3 (syst)\(^{−0.2}_{−0.1}\) (lumi) pb, which is consistent with the Standard Model prediction of 6.6\(^{+0.7}_{−0.6}\) pb. The differential cross sections in bins of various kinematic variables are presented. The differential event yield as a function of the transverse momentum of the leading \(Z\) boson is used to set limits on anomalous neutral triple gauge boson couplings in \(ZZ\) production.

A measurement of the \({t\overline{t}}Z\) and \({t\overline{t}}W\) production cross sections in final states with either two same-charge muons, or three or four leptons (electrons or muons) is presented. The analysis uses a data sample of proton–proton collisions at \(\sqrt{s}\) = 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb\(^{−1}\). The inclusive cross sections are extracted using likelihood fits to signal and control regions, resulting in \(\sigma_{{t\overline{t}}Z}\) = 0.9 ± 0.3 pb and \(\sigma_{{t\overline{t}}W}\) = 1.5 ± 0.8 pb, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.