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Classical novae are thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of white dwarfs.
When co-existing in a binary system with a main sequence or more evolved star, mass
accretion from the companion star to the white dwarf can take place if the companion
overflows its Roche lobe. The envelope of hydrogen-rich matter which builds on
top of the white dwarf eventually ignites under degenerate conditions, leading to
a thermonuclear runaway and an explosion in the order of 1046 erg, while leaving
the white dwarf intact. Spectral analyses from the debris indicate an abundance of
isotopes that are tracers of nuclear burning via the hot CNO cycle, which in turn
reveal some sort of mixing between the envelope and the white dwarf underneath.
The exact mechanism is still a matter of debate.
The convection and deflagration in novae develop in the low Mach number regime.
We used the Seven League Hydro code (SLH ), which employs numerical schemes
designed to correctly simulate low Mach number flows, to perform two and three-
dimensional simulations of classical novae. Based on a spherically-symmetric model
created with aid of a stellar evolution code, we developed our own nova model and
tested it on a variety of numerical grids and boundary conditions for validation. We
focused on the evolution of temperature, density and nuclear energy generation rate at
the layers between white dwarf and envelope, where most of the energy is generated,
to understand the structure of the transition region, and its effect on the nuclear
burning. We analyzed the resulting dredge-up efficiency stemming from the convective
motions in the envelope. Our models yield similar results to the literature, but seem
to depend very strongly on the numerical resolution. We followed the evolution of
the nuclear species involved in the CNO cycle and concluded that the thermonuclear
reactions primarily taking place are those of the cold and not the hot CNO cycle.
The reason behind this could be that under the conditions generally assumed for
multi-dimensional simulations, the envelope is in fact not degenerate. We performed
initial tests for 3D simulations and realized that alternative boundary conditions are
needed.

In this work, high-energy observables arising during different phases of SN explosions are studied with respect to their potential for allowing conclusions on suggested explosion scenarios and physical mechanisms that are thought to influence the evolution of SNe in a major way. The focus on selected observables at keV and MeV energies is motivated by the appearance of large degeneracies that can even be found for disparate scenarios in many wavelength regimes. Since the discussed emission in the high-energy regime is directly linked to nuclear processes being usually very distinct for different suggested physical models, the signatures at keV and MeV energies allow for meaningful comparisons of simulations with observations.

This work is concerned with the numerical approximation of solutions to models that are used to describe atmospheric or oceanographic flows. In particular, this work concen- trates on the approximation of the Shallow Water equations with bottom topography and the compressible Euler equations with a gravitational potential. Numerous methods have been developed to approximate solutions of these models. Of specific interest here are the approximations of near equilibrium solutions and, in the case of the Euler equations, the low Mach number flow regime. It is inherent in most of the numerical methods that the quality of the approximation increases with the number of degrees of freedom that are used. Therefore, these schemes are often run in parallel on big computers to achieve the best pos- sible approximation. However, even on those big machines, the desired accuracy can not be achieved by the given maximal number of degrees of freedom that these machines allow. The main focus in this work therefore lies in the development of numerical schemes that give better resolution of the resulting dynamics on the same number of degrees of freedom, compared to classical schemes.
This work is the result of a cooperation of Prof. Klingenberg of the Institute of Mathe- matics in Wu¨rzburg and Prof. R¨opke of the Astrophysical Institute in Wu¨rzburg. The aim of this collaboration is the development of methods to compute stellar atmospheres. Two main challenges are tackled in this work. First, the accurate treatment of source terms in the numerical scheme. This leads to the so called well-balanced schemes. They allow for an accurate approximation of near equilibrium dynamics. The second challenge is the approx- imation of flows in the low Mach number regime. It is known that the compressible Euler equations tend towards the incompressible Euler equations when the Mach number tends to zero. Classical schemes often show excessive diffusion in that flow regime. The here devel- oped scheme falls into the category of an asymptotic preserving scheme, i.e. the numerical scheme reflects the behavior that is computed on the continuous equations. Moreover, it is shown that the diffusion of the numerical scheme is independent of the Mach number.
In chapter 3, an HLL-type approximate Riemann solver is adapted for simulations of the Shallow Water equations with bottom topography to develop a well-balanced scheme. In the literature, most schemes only tackle the equilibria when the fluid is at rest, the so called Lake at rest solutions. Here a scheme is developed to accurately capture all the equilibria of the Shallow Water equations. Moreover, in contrast to other works, a second order extension is proposed, that does not rely on an iterative scheme inside the reconstruction procedure, leading to a more efficient scheme.
In chapter 4, a Suliciu relaxation scheme is adapted for the resolution of hydrostatic equilibria of the Euler equations with a gravitational potential. The hydrostatic relations are underdetermined and therefore the solutions to that equations are not unique. However, the scheme is shown to be well-balanced for a wide class of hydrostatic equilibria. For specific classes, some quadrature rules are computed to ensure the exact well-balanced property. Moreover, the scheme is shown to be robust, i.e. it preserves the positivity of mass and energy, and stable with respect to the entropy. Numerical results are presented in order to investigate the impact of the different quadrature rules on the well-balanced property.
In chapter 5, a Suliciu relaxation scheme is adapted for the simulations of low Mach number flows. The scheme is shown to be asymptotic preserving and not suffering from excessive diffusion in the low Mach number regime. Moreover, it is shown to be robust under certain parameter combinations and to be stable from an Chapman-Enskog analysis.
Numerical results are presented in order to show the advantages of the new approach.
In chapter 6, the schemes developed in the chapters 4 and 5 are combined in order to investigate the performance of the numerical scheme in the low Mach number regime in a gravitational stratified atmosphere. The scheme is shown the be well-balanced, robust and stable with respect to a Chapman-Enskog analysis. Numerical tests are presented to show the advantage of the newly proposed method over the classical scheme.
In chapter 7, some remarks on an alternative way to tackle multidimensional simulations are presented. However no numerical simulations are performed and it is shown why further research on the suggested approach is necessary.