## 12.60.Jv Supersymmetric models (see also 04.65.+e Supergravity)

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The origin of fermion mass hierarchies and mixings is one of the unresolved and most difficult problems in high-energy physics. One possibility to address the flavour problems is by extending the standard model to include a family symmetry. In the recent years it has become very popular to use non-Abelian discrete flavour symmetries because of their power in the prediction of the large leptonic mixing angles relevant for neutrino oscillation experiments. Here we give an introduction to the flavour problem and to discrete groups that have been used to attempt a solution for it. We review the current status of models in light of the recent measurement of the reactor angle, and we consider different model-building directions taken. The use of the flavons or multi-Higgs scalars in model building is discussed as well as the direct versus indirect approaches. We also focus on the possibility of experimentally distinguishing flavour symmetry models by means of mixing sum rules and mass sum rules. In fact, we illustrate in this review the complete path from mathematics, via model building, to experiments, so that any reader interested in starting work in the field could use this text as a starting point in order to obtain a broad overview of the different subject areas.

Testing Models with Higher Dimensional Effective Interactions at the LHC and Dark Matter Experiments
(2013)

Dark matter and non-zero neutrino masses are possible hints for new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such potential consequences of new physics can be described by effective field theories in a model independent way. It is possible that the dominant contribution to low-energy effects of new physics is generated by operators of dimension d>5, e.g., due to an additional symmetry. Since these are more suppressed than the usually discussed lower dimensional operators, they can lead to extremly weak interactions even if new physics appears at comparatively low scales. Thus neutrino mass models can be connected to TeV scale physics, for instance. The possible existence of TeV scale particles is interesting, since they can be potentially observed at collider experiments, such as the Large Hadron Collider. Hence, we first recapitulate the generation of neutrino masses by higher dimensional effective operators in a supersymmetric framework. In addition, we discuss processes that can be used to test these models at the Large Hadron Collider. The introduction of new particles can affect the running of gauge couplings. Hence, we study the compatibilty of these models with Grand Unified Theories. The required extension of these models can imply the existence of new heavy quarks, which requires the consideration of cosmological constraints. Finally, higher dimensional effective operators can not only generate small neutrino masses. They also can be used to discuss the interactions relevant for dark matter detection experiments. Thus we apply the methods established for the study of neutrino mass models to the systematic discussion of higher dimensional effective operators generating dark matter interactions.

During the last decades the standard model of particle physics has evolved to one of the most precise theories in physics, describing the properties and interactions of fundamental particles in various experiments with a high accuracy. However it lacks on some shortcomings from experimental as well as from theoretical point of view: There is no approved mechanism for the generation of masses of the fundamental particles, in particular also not for the light, but massive neutrinos. In addition the standard model does not provide an explanation for the observance of dark matter in the universe. Moreover the gauge couplings of the three forces in the standard model do not unify, implying that a fundamental theory combining all forces can not be formulated. Within this thesis we address supersymmetric models as answers to these various questions, but instead of focusing on the most simple supersymmetrization of the standard model, we consider basic extensions, namely the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which contains an additional singlet field, and R-parity violating models. R-parity is a discrete symmetry introduced to guarantee the stability of the proton. Using lepton number violating terms in the context of bilinear R-parity violation and the munuSSM we are able to explain neutrino physics intrinsically supersymmetric, since those terms induce a mixing between the neutralinos and the neutrinos. Since 2009 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN explores the new energy regime of Tera-electronvolt, allowing the production of potentially existing heavy particles by the collision of protons. Thus the near future might provide answers to the open questions of mass generation in the standard model and show hints towards physics beyond the standard model. Therefore this thesis works out the phenomenology of the supersymmetric models under consideration and tries to point out differences to the well-known features of the simplest supersymmetric realization of the standard model. In case of the R-parity violating models the decays of the light neutralinos can result in displaced vertices. In combination with a light singlet state these displaced vertices might offer a rich phenomenology like non-standard Higgs decays into a pair of singlinos decaying with displaced vertices. Within this thesis we present some calculations at next order of perturbation theory, since one-loop corrections provide possibly large contributions to the tree-level masses and decay widths. We are using an on-shell renormalization scheme to calculate the masses of neutralinos and charginos including the neutrinos and leptons in case of the R-parity violating models at one-loop level. The discussion shows the similarities and differences to existing calculations in another renormalization scheme, namely the DRbar scheme. Moreover we consider two-body decays of the form chi_j^0 -> chi_l^\pm W^\mp involving a heavy gauge boson in the final state at one-loop level. Corrections are found to be large in case of small or vanishing tree-level decay widths and also for the R-parity violating decay of the lightest neutralino chi_1^0 -> l^\pm W^\mp. An interesting feature of the models based on bilinear R-parity violation is the correlation between the branching ratios of the lightest neutralino decays and the neutrino mixing angles. We discuss these relations at tree-level and for two-body decays chi_1^0 -> l^\pm W^\mp also at one-loop level, since only the full one-loop corrections result in the tree-level expected behavior. The appendix describes the two programs MaCoR and CNNDecays being developed for the analysis carried out in this thesis. MaCoR allows for the calculation of mass matrices and couplings in the models under consideration and CNNDecays is used for the one-loop calculations of neutralino and chargino mass matrices and the two-body decay widths.

Supersymmetry is currently the best motivated extension of the Standard Model and will be subject to extensive studies in the upcoming generation of colliders. The e-e- mode would be a straight forward extension to the currently planed International Linear Collider, planned to operate in e+e- mode. The low background in this mode may prove advantageous in the study of CP- and Lepton Flavour Violtation. In this work a CP sensitive observable based on transverse beam polarisation is introduced and the impact of neutralino mixing on the total cross section in cas of non-vanishing CP-violtating phases is studied in representative scenarios including non-GUT scenarios. Additionally, the mixing of sleptons is studied in the context of LFV, an analytical approximation is developed, and possible background free measurements of these effects are investigated.

Calculations of multi-particle processes at the one-loop level: precise predictions for the LHC
(2007)

The Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics provides a uniform framework for the description of three fundamental forces, the electromagnetic and weak forces, describing interactions between quarks and leptons, and the strong force, describing a much stronger interaction between the coloured quarks. Numerous experimental tests have been performed in the last thirty years, showing a spectacular agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model, even at the per mille level, therefore validating the model at the quantum level. An important cornerstone of the Standard Model is the Higgs mechanism, which provides a possible explanation of electroweak symmetry breaking, responsible for the masses of elementary fermions and the W and Z bosons, the carriers of the weak force. This mechanism predicts a scalar boson, the Higgs boson, which has escaped its discovery so far. If the Higgs mechanism is indeed realised in nature, the upcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be able to find the associated Higgs boson. The discovery of a Higgs boson by itself is not sufficient to establish the Higgs mechanism, the basic ingredient being the Higgs potential which predicts trilinear and quartic couplings. These have to be confirmed experimentally by the study of multi-Higgs production. We therefore present a calculation of the loop-induced processes gg to HH and gg to HHH, and investigate the observability of multi-Higgs boson production at the LHC in the Standard Model and beyond. While the SM cross sections are too small to allow observation at the LHC, we demonstrate that physics beyond the SM can lead to amplified, observable cross sections. Furthermore, the applicability of the heavy top quark approximation in two- and three-Higgs boson production is investigated. We conclude that multi-Higgs boson production at the SuperLHC is an interesting probe of Higgs sectors beyond the SM and warrants further study. Despite the great success of the SM, it is widely believed that this model cannot be valid for arbitrarily high energies. The LHC will probe the TeV scale and theoretical arguments indicate the appearance of physics beyond the SM at this scale. The search for new physics requires a precise understanding of the SM. Precise theoretical predictions are needed which match the accuracy of the experiments. For the LHC, most analyses require next-to-leading order (NLO) precision. Only then will we be able to reliably verify or falsify different models. At the LHC, many interesting signatures involve more than two particles in the final state. Precise theoretical predictions for such multi-leg processes are a highly nontrivial task and new efficient methods have to be applied. The calculation of the process PP to VV+jet at NLO is an important background process to Higgs production in association with a jet at the LHC. We compute the virtual corrections to this process which form the "bottleneck" for obtaining a complete NLO prediction. The resulting analytic expressions are generated with highly automated computer routines and translated into a flexible Fortran code, which can be employed in the computation of differential cross sections of phenomenological interest. The obtained results for the virtual corrections indicate that the QCD corrections are sizable and should be taken into account in experimental studies for the LHC.

The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is essential to provide masses to the W and Z gauge bosons and fermions of the SM. We hope to elucidate this mechanism at the next generation of colliders. While the SM has been tested with astonishing precision it is believed to be an effective theory of a more fundamental Great Unified Theory. SUSY is one of the most attractive extensions of the SM of particle physics. Therefore, the search for SUSY is a top priority at the next generation of colliders. Once Higgs bosons are discovered, a precise determination of their properties is necessary to differentiate between different models, in particular the MSSM. A muon collider, running at center of mass energies around the neutral Higgs boson resonances, would allow precise measurements of masses and widths, as well as the couplings to their decay products. In particular their couplings to supersymmetric particles are essential to probe SUSY. Therefore, we study the decays of the heavier CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons into lighter chargino or neutralino pairs. In this thesis we have analyzed the polarization effects of the beams and the charginos and neutralinos produced in mu+ mu- annihilation around the center of mass energies of the Higgs boson resonances H and A. For the production of equal charginos we have shown that the ratio of H-chargino and A-chargino couplings can be precisely determined independently of the chargino decay mechanism. This method avoids reference to other experiments and makes only a few model-dependent assumptions. Here we have analyzed the effect of the energy spread and of the error from the non-resonant channels, including an irreducible standard model background contribution. For small tan(beta) the process yields large cross sections of up to a pb. For the production of two different charginos we have shown that the H-A interference can be analyzed using asymmetries of the charge conjugated processes. The asymmetries depend on the muon longitudinal beam polarizations and vanish for unpolarized beams. For the chargino pair production with subsequent two-body decay of one of the charginos we have shown that charge and beam polarization asymmetries in the energy distributions of the decay particles are sensitive to the interference of scalar exchange channels with different CP quantum numbers. This process provides unique information on the interference of overlapping Higgs boson resonances. The effect is larger for regions of parameter space with intermediate values of tan(beta) and light sleptons or LSP neutralinos. For the chargino pair production with subsequent two-body decays of both charginos we have defined energy distribution and angular asymmetries in the final particles, in order to analyze the spin-spin correlations of the charginos. The transverse polarizations of the charginos are sensitive to the CP quantum number of the exchanged Higgs bosons and can thus be used to separate overlapping resonances, as well as to determine the CP quantum number of a single resonance. For equal charginos, these asymmetries are not sensitive to the interference of CP-even and CP-odd Higgs exchange channels. For the neutralino pair production in mu+ mu- annihilation we study similar processes as for chargino production. Line shape measurements of neutralino pair production allow to precisely determine the ratio of H-neutralino and A-neutralino couplings. Neutralino pair production with subsequent two-body decay of one of the neutralinos in the intermediate tan(beta) region is sensitive to the interference of H and A and may be measured with a large statistical significance. The Majorana nature of the neutralinos implies that the beam polarization asymmetries vanish for the remaining production channels. For neutralino pair production with subsequent two-body decays of both neutralinos we analyze similar observables as in chargino production. The main difference consists in the intrinsic relative CP quantum number of the neutralino pair, which depends on the chosen scenario. We have thus shown that the interaction of the Higgs bosons to the gaugino-higgsino sector can be probed at a muon collider in chargino and neutralino pair production, both analyzing the production line-shape around the resonances as well as studying the chargino and neutralino polarizations via their decays.

In this thesis we analyze CP violating effects of MSSM phases in production and two-body decays of neutralinos, charginos and sfermions. For different supersymmetric processes we define and calculate CP-odd asymmetries, which base on triple products. We present numerical results for electron-positron collisions at a future linear collider with a center of mass energy of 500-800 GeV, high luminosity and longitudinally polarized beams.

In this work, we studied in great detail how the unknown parameters of the SUSY seesaw model can be determined from measurements of observables at or below collider energies, namely rare flavor violating decays of leptons, slepton pair production processes at linear colliders and slepton mass differences. This is a challenging task as there is an intricate dependence of the observables on the unknown seesaw, light neutrino and mSUGRA parameters. In order to separate these different influences, we first considered two classes of seesaw models, namely quasi-degenerate and strongly hierarchical right-handed neutrinos. As a generalisation, we presented a method that can be used to reconstruct the high energy seesaw parameters, among them the heavy right-handed neutrino masses, from low energy observables alone.