Analysis of Historical Islamic Glazes and the Development of a Substitution Material

Analyse historischer Islamischer Glasuren und die Entwicklung eines Restaurierungsmaterials

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  • 11 Conclusion 11.1 Glaze compositions Glazes from tiles of imposing Islamic buildings and some tableware glazes of the medieval epoch in Central Asia, the Middle East, Asia Minor, and North Africa are analysed regarding their main composition and colouring agents. Three major production recipes can be distinguished, i.e. alkali glazes, alkali lead glazes, and lead glazes. In the work of Tite (2011), Islamic glazes from Egypt, Iran, Iraq, and Syria are subdivided into four groups of composition, being partly consistent with those of this work.11 Conclusion 11.1 Glaze compositions Glazes from tiles of imposing Islamic buildings and some tableware glazes of the medieval epoch in Central Asia, the Middle East, Asia Minor, and North Africa are analysed regarding their main composition and colouring agents. Three major production recipes can be distinguished, i.e. alkali glazes, alkali lead glazes, and lead glazes. In the work of Tite (2011), Islamic glazes from Egypt, Iran, Iraq, and Syria are subdivided into four groups of composition, being partly consistent with those of this work. The alkali lime glazes with <2 wt% PbO correspond to the alkali glazes, but with higher content of CaO. The second and third group of low lead alkali and lead alkali glazes (2-10 wt% PbO and 10-35 wt% PbO) can be subsumed to the alkali lead group described here. Tite´s high lead group has PbO contents >35 wt% and is comparable to the lead glazes (>30 wt% PbO) of this study. The lead and the alkali oxides serve as a flux for the lowering the melting point. In the interaction of ceramic body and glaze, primarily an influence from Si, Al, and K is observed in the line scans from the cross section of ceramic and glaze. However, the input of ceramic material doesn’t seem to be critical for the classification of glazes according to their alkali and alkali lead compositions. In every epoch and locality, except of the Ilkhanate dynasty in Iran, lead glaze samples can be verified. This is also observed in previous investigations e.g. from medieval Iraq, Jordan and Iran (McCarthy, 1996; Al-Saad, 2002; Holakooei et al., 2014). In the Moroccan and Bulgarian glazes, lead seems to be the only important flux. In part, the lead flux is supplemented by additional alkali contents. The lack of alkali and alkali lead glazes in Bulgarian and Moroccan glazes (assuming that the Ottoman alkali lead glazes are imported tableware) seems to affect the regions with Roman-influenced history and with geographical distance to the Near East alkali flux tradition. For the alkali lead glazes and alkali glazes, the overall characteristic is sodium dominated, although the absolute soda values are in part surprisingly low. Samples from Bukhara, Takht-i-Suleiman and the Turkish localities have the highest, but still moderate Na2O values up to 15 wt%, compared to other analyses from e.g. India (Gill & Rehren, 2011). The source of the alkali flux is either mineral natron or plant ash. The source can be determined regarding the MgO values, limited to 1.3 wt% in mineral natron and exceeding 2.0 wt% in the case of plant ashes. In the samples of the present study, the K2O component is not suitable for the indication of the flux-relevant alkali source due to its broad scattering. The P2O5 contents are also enhanced in the plant ash compositions but the data set is not sufficient for statistical evaluation. An influence of the ceramic body on the glaze composition is observed only for SiO2, Al2O3, and K2O in quartz frit ceramics with slight K-feldspar content. The earliest Uzbek tableware glazes from the 10th-11th century (Seljuq period) were generally produced using a lead flux. The same applies to part of the Uzbek tile glazes which were produced between the 13th and 16th century. In Iran, glazes from the 12th century (Khwarezmid period) are lead glazes, but also alkali-fluxed glazes with mineral natron characteristics can be found. Although the production of lead-rich glazes was established from the 8th-9th century on in Iraq, Syria, and Egypt (Henshaw, 2010; Tite et al., 2011), alkali glazes are found in almost all regions except of Bulgaria and Morocco. Plant ash-fluxed alkali glazes are found in 13th century glazes from Takht-i-Suleiman. The plant ash flux technology is assumed to be continuously used in Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia (Sayre & Smith, 1974; Henderson, 2009), but it could be shown that a parallel use of mineral natron parallel existed in the alkali glaze production from the 12th-15th century from Uzbekistan to Afghanistan. Mineral natron characteristics are also reported by Mason (2004) for Syrian and Iranian alkali glazes on lustre ware of the 8th-14th century. Tile glazes with partly mineral natron compositions are found in the Mughal architectural glazes from the 14th- 17th century from India (Gill et al., 2014). Alkali and alkali lead tile glazes from Samarkand from the 13th century (Mongolian period) have mineral natron flux characteristics, but samples from the 15th century (Timurid period) show plant ash signature. Alkali fluxed Uzbek glazes from Bukhara from the 16th century (Sheibanid dynasty) are also made by plant ash flux and are subdivided into two groups with high and low sodium oxide content. The Afghan alkali glazes have sodium oxide contents similar to the sodium-poor Uzbek subgroup, which points to a possible exchange of glaze makers or glaze making technology from Uzbekistan and Afghanistan in the 15th-17th century. Regarding the extensive exchange of Timurid craftsmen in Central Asia, this option seems to be even more likely (Golombek, 1996). One sample from the 15th century from Afghanistan with mineral natron reveals that this material was parallel used in these centuries. Concerning the colouring of the glazes, it has to be distinguished between pigments and colouring ions which are incorporated in the glassy matrix. The colouring agents for translucent glazes are cations of various transition metals. As ions, Co2+ (blue), Cu2+ (green in a lead rich matrix), Fe3+ (brown/black), Mn4+ (brown/black) and Mn3+ (violet) are determined by EPMA. For opaque yellow, white, and turquoise glazes, different pigments were used. The crystalline pigments are investigated by a µ XRD2 device with the result of SnO2, SiO2, and PbSiO4 as whitening agents. PbSiO4 and Pb2Sn2O6 are found in the yellow glaze, from which only the lead tin oxide causes the yellow colour. In the black glazes, different Cr-rich pigments, Cu-Cr-Mn-oxides and iron containing clinopyroxenes are found, even in samples of the same period and region. Cr-rich particles are also detected in two turquoise Afghan glazes from the 15th and 16th century. The use of the ions of Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, and Mn seems to be widely common in the Islamic glazes and corresponds to the described colouring agents in e.g. the study of Tite (2011). The use of opacifying SnO2 particles is widespread as it is reported from different Islamic glazes from Iraq, Iran, Egypt, and Syria (Henshaw, 2010; O´Kane, 2011; Tite, 2011). The colouring agents are known already from former, e.g. Egyptian, Roman and pre-islamic periods, but especially SnO2 pigments became increasingly widespread in the Islamic glazing tradition. The use of yellow and black pigments instead varies already within the buildings from Bukhara from Cr crystals and clino-pyroxenes in the mosque Khoja Zainuddin to a Cu-Cr-Mn-oxide in the madrassa Mir-i Arab of the same epoch. Regarding the matrix compositions connected with the colouring, a certain assignment within the different locations and epochs can be seen. It is noticeable that e.g. the content of lead in turquoise glazes in Uzbekistan is in the range of 0.0-9.2 wt% Pb, whereas blue glazes are mostly alkali ones with PbO contents <2.0 wt%. The turquoise glazes show, that this restriction is not influenced by any defaults of availability and processability. The assumption of common addition of lead and tin to the glaze, which is already described for Iranian glazes of the 13th century (Allan et al., 1973) cannot be confirmed by correlations of tin and lead oxide in the compositions. 11.2 Portable XRF measurement With the p-XRF, semi-quantitative information about the major element compositions is generated. The depth of the detectable signals depends on the analysed sample setup. The p-XRF data are collected with the XL3 Hybrid device of the company Analyticon Instruments. In the comparison of p-XRF results of the “mining” program from Uzbek glazes with EPMA results, the same major composition groups can be distinguished. The Moroccan glazes, all lead rich, are measured with the “mining” as well as with the “soil” program, revealing a better performance in the “mining” measurements. The deviations are nevertheless high, because of the high lead contents, which make the calculation of matrix correction difficult. The measurement of the colouring oxides MnO2, CoO, and CuO is satisfying with the internal calibration of the device and even improved with the “mining” program measurement, if compared to the results of the “soil” program. The measurements of glaze imitations lead to better results than that of bulk glass. This can be attributed to the smoother surface texture. In spite of the accuracy limits in the measurements of particular elements in glazes, the classification of flux composition into three groups could be confirmed with the p XRF analysis. The measurement precision is therefore sufficient for the semi-quantitative analysis of the flux characteristic of glazes. Especially for the on-site measurement of large sample quantities on historical buildings, the device is a suitable tool. 11.3 Restoration material The ORMOCER® fulfils the requirements of stability, reversibility, and transparency, which are imposed to a modern restoration material. As pigments, historically coloured glass, cobalt blue, Egyptian blue, lead tin yellow, manganese violet, iron oxide, copper oxide, and cassiterite were used. The metal compounds have higher colour intensities than the pigments of coloured glass. It has to be considered that the proportion of ORMOCER® in the batch must be high enough (70 vol%) to guarantee the ORMOCER® properties of weathering and mechanical stability. The adhesion properties of the ORMOCER® and the homogeneity of the mixture are the best in a fraction of max. 30 vol% particles per ORMOCER®. With integrated particles, the ORMOCER® G materials show homogeneous coatings, whereas the particles in the ORMCOER® E show more agglomeration. In the sedimentation and weathering experiments, the use of an ultrasonic finger in combination with a roller mill is favourable compared to the treatment with bead grinding mill. The treatments with ultrasonic finger and roller mill result in less sedimentation and better adhesion of the dispersions. The treatment of the dispersions in the bead grinding mill does not result in sufficient adhesion, certainly due to the sedimentation behaviour and a congregation of particles on the bottom of the coating. The modification of dispersed nano-particles by 3-methacryl-oxypropyltrimethoxysilan leads to a further homogenization in the sedimentation tests. It is therefore approved for the use in coloured glaze supplements. In weathered coatings of nano-particle compounds, the surface modification shows certainly no enhancement of stability. The treatment of pigmented coatings with an additional layer of pure ORMOCER® results in a bright and transparent appearing, which is closer to the original optical appearance of the glaze. A long-time test application on a historical building will be the next step to validate the suitability of the restoration moreshow less
  • Analyse historischer Islamischer Glasuren und die Entwicklung eines Restaurierungsmaterials

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Author: Rena GradmannORCiDGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Granting Institution:Universität Würzburg, Philosophische Fakultät (Histor., philolog., Kultur- und geograph. Wissensch.)
Faculties:Philosophische Fakultät (Histor., philolog., Kultur- und geograph. Wissensch.) / Institut für Geographie und Geologie
Referee:Prof. Dr. Ulrich Schüßler, Prof. Dr. Thilo Rehren
Date of final exam:2016/07/06
Year of Completion:2016
Sonstige beteiligte Institutionen:Fraunhofer ISC
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 54 Chemie / 549 Mineralogie
GND Keyword:Glasur; Islamische Staaten; Restaurierung; Keramik; Werkstoff
Tag:Archäometrie; Farbgebung; Islamische Kunst
Islamic glazes; Restoration material; archaeometry; colouring agents; portable XRF
Release Date:2016/07/20
Licence (German):License LogoCC BY-NC-ND: Creative-Commons-Lizenz: Namensnennung, Nicht kommerziell, Keine Bearbeitung