## 73.00.00 Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures (for electronic structure and electrical properties of superconducting films and low-dimensional structures, see 74.78.-w; for computational

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The subject of this thesis is the investigation of the transport properties of topological and massive surface states in the three-dimensional topological insulator Hg(Mn)Te. These surface states give rise to a variety of extraordinary transport phenomena, making this material system of great interest for research and technological applications. In this connection, many physical properties of the topological insulator Hg(Mn)Te still require in-depth exploration. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze the quantum transport of HgTe-based devices ranging from hundreds of micrometers (macroscopic) down to a few micrometers in size (microscopic) in order to extend the overall understanding of surface states and the possibilities of their manipulation.
In order to exploit the full potential of our high-quality heterostructures, it was necessary to revise and improve the existing lithographic fabrication process of macroscopic three-dimensional Hg(Mn)Te samples. A novel lithographic standard recipe for the fabrication of the HgTe-based macrostructures was developed. This recipe includes the use of an optimized Hall bar design and wet etching instead of etching with high-energy \(\mathrm{{Ar^{+}}}\)-ions, which can damage the samples. Further, a hafnium oxide insulator is applied replacing the SiO\(_{2}\)/Si\(_{3}\)N\(_{4}\) dielectric in order to reduce thermal load. Moreover, the devices are metallized under an alternating angle to avoid discontinuities of the metal layers over the mesa edges. It was revealed that the application of gate-dielectric and top-gate metals results in n-type doping of the devices. This phenomenon could be attributed to quasi-free electrons tunneling from the trap states, which form at the interface cap layer/insulator, through the cap into the active layer. This finding led to the development of a new procedure to characterize wafer materials. It was found that the optimized lithographic processing steps do not unintentionally react chemically with our heterostructures, thus avoiding a degradation of the quality of the Hg(Mn)Te layer. The implementation of new contact structures Ti/Au, In/Ti/Au, and Al/Ti/Au did not result in any improvement compared to the standard structure AuGe/Au. However, a novel sample recipe could be developed, resulting in an intermixing of the contact metals (AuGe and Au) and fingering of metal into the mesa. The extent of the quality of the ohmic contacts obtained through this process has yet to be fully established.
This thesis further deals with the lithographic realization of three-dimensional HgTe-based microstructures measuring only a few micrometer in size. Thus, these structures are in the order of the mean free path and the spin relaxation length of topological surface state electrons. A lithographic process was developed enabling the fabrication of nearly any desired microscopic device structure. In this context, two techniques suitable for etching microscopic samples were realized, namely wet etching and the newly established inductively coupled plasma etching. While wet etching was found to preserve the crystal quality of the active layer best, inductively coupled plasma etching is characterized by high reproducibility and excellent structural fidelity. Hence, the etching technique employed depends on the envisaged type of experiment.
Magneto-transport measurements were carried out on the macroscopic HgTe-based devices fabricated by means of improved lithographic processing with respect to the transport properties of topological and massive surface states. It was revealed that due to the low charge carrier density present in the leads to the ohmic contacts, these regions can exhibit an insulating behavior at high magnetic fields and extremely low temperatures. As soon as the filling factor of the lowest Landau levels dropped below a critical value (\(\nu_{\mathrm{{c}}}\approx0.8\)), the conductance of the leads decreased significantly. It was demonstrated that the carrier density in the leads can be increased by the growth of modulation doping layers, a back-gate-electrode, light-emitting diode illumination, and by the application of an overlapping top-gate layout. This overlapping top-gate and a back-gate made it possible to manipulate the carrier density of the surface states on both sides of the Hg(Mn)Te layer independently. With this setup, it was identified that topological and massive surface states contribute to transport simultaneously in 3D Hg(Mn)Te. A model could be developed allowing the charge carrier systems populated in the sample to be determined unambiguously. Based on this model, the process of the re-entrant quantum Hall effect observed for the first time in three-dimensional topological insulators could be explained by an interplay of n-type topological and p-type massive surface states. A well-pronounced \(\nu=-1\rightarrow\nu=-2\rightarrow\nu=-1\) sequence of quantum Hall plateaus was found in manganese-doped HgTe-based samples. It is postulated that this is the condensed-matter realization of the parity anomaly in three-dimensional topological insulators. The actual nature of this phenomenon can be the subject of further research. In addition, the measurements have shown that inter-scattering occurs between counter-propagating quantum Hall edge states. The good quantization of the Hall conductance despite this inter-scattering indicates that only the unpaired edge states determine the transport properties of the system as a whole. The underlying inter-scattering mechanism is the topic of a publication in preparation.
Furthermore, three-dimensional HgTe-based microstructures shaped like the capital letter "H" were investigated regarding spin transport phenomena. The non-local voltage signals occurring in the measurements could be attributed to a current-induced spin polarization of the topological surface states due to electrons obeying spin-momentum locking. It was shown that the strength of this non-local signal is directly connected to the magnitude of the spin polarization and can be manipulated by the applied top-gate voltage. It was found that in these microstructures, the massive surface and bulk states, unlike the topological surface states, cannot contribute to this spin-associated phenomenon. On the contrary, it was demonstrated that the population of massive states results in a reduction of the spin polarization, either due to the possible inter-scattering of massive and topological surface states or due to the addition of an unpolarized electron background. The evidence of spin transport controllable by a top-gate-electrode makes the three-dimensional material system mercury telluride a promising candidate for further research in the field of spintronics.

The thesis at hand is concerned with improving our understanding of and our control over transport properties of the three-dimensional topological insulator HgTe. Topological insulators are characterized by an insulating bulk and symmetry-protected metallic surface states. These topological surface states hold great promise for research and technology; at the same time, many properties of experimentally accessible topological insulator materials still need to be explored thoroughly. The overall aim of this thesis was to experimentally investigate micrometer-sized HgTe transport devices to observe the ballistic transport regime as well as intercarrier scattering and possibly identify special properties of the topological surface states.
Part I of the thesis presents lithographic developments concerned with etching small HgTe devices. The aim was to replace existing processes which relied on dry etching with high-energy \(\text{Ar}^+\) ions and an organic etch mask. This etching method is known to degrade the HgTe crystal quality. In addition, the etch mask turned out to be not durable for long etching processes and difficult to remove completely after etching. First, \(\text{BaF}_2\) was introduced as a new etch mask for dry etching to replace the organic etch mask. With common surface characterization techniques like SEM and XPS it was shown that \(\text{BaF}_2\) etch masks are easy to deposit, highly durable in common dry etching processes for \(\text{Hg}_{1-x}\text{Cd}_x\text{Te}\), and easy to remove in deionized water. Transport results of HgTe devices fabricated with the new etch mask are comparable to results obtained with the old process. At the same time, the new etch mask can withstand longer etching times and does not cause problems due to incomplete removal. Second, a new inductively coupled plasma dry etching process based on \(\text{CH}_4\) and Ar was introduced. This etching process is compatible with \(\text{BaF}_2\) etch masks and yields highly reproducible results. Transport results indicate that the new etching process does not degrade the crystal quality and is suitable to produce high-quality transport devices even in the micrometer range. A comparison with wet-etched samples shows that inductively coupled plasma etching introduces a pronounced edge roughness. This - usually undesirable - property is actually beneficial for some of the experiments in this study and mostly irrelevant for others. Therefore, most samples appearing in this thesis were fabricated with the new process.
Part II of the thesis details the advancements made in identifying topological and trivial states which contribute to transport in HgTe three-dimensional topological insulators. To this end, macroscopic Hall bar samples were fabricated from high-quality tensilely strained HgTe layers by means of the improved lithographic processes. All samples were equipped with a top gate electrode, and some also with a modulation doping layer or a back gate electrode to modify the carrier density of the surface states on both sides of the HgTe layer. Due to the high sample quality, Landau levels could be well-resolved in standard transport measurements down to magnetic fields of less than 0.5T. High-resolution measurements of the Landau level dispersion with gate voltage and magnetic field allowed disentangling different transport channels. The main result here is that the upper (electron) branches of the two topological surface states contribute to transport in all experimentally relevant density regimes, while the hole branch is not accessible. Far in n-regime bulk conduction band states give a minor contribution to transport. More importantly, trivial bulk valence band holes come into play close to the charge neutrality point. Further in p-regime, the strong applied gate voltage leads to the formation of two-dimensional, massive hole states at the HgTe surface. The interplay of different states gives rise to rich physics: Top gate-back gate maps revealed that an anticrossing of Landau levels from the two topological surface states occurs at equal filling. A possible explanation for this effect is a weak hybridization of the surface states; however, future studies need to further clarify this point. Furthermore, the superposition of n-type topological and p-type trivial surface states leads to an intriguing Landau level dispersion. The good quantization of the Hall conductance in this situation indicates that the counterpropagating edge states interact with each other. The nature of this interaction will be the topic of further research.
Part III of the thesis is focused on HgTe microstructures. These "channel samples" have a typical width of 0.5 to 4µm and a typical length of 5 to 80µm. The quality of these devices benefits particularly from the improved lithographic processes. As a result, the impurity mean free path of the topological surface state electrons is on the order of the device width and transport becomes semiballistic. This was verified by measuring the channel resistance in small magnetic fields in n-regime. The deflection of carriers towards the dissipative channel walls results in a pronounced peak in the magnetoresistance, which scales in a predictable manner with the channel width. To investigate transport effects due to mutual scattering of charge carriers, the differential resistance of channel samples was measured as a function of carrier temperature. Selective heating of the charge carriers - but not the lattice - was achieved by passing a heating current through the channel. Increasing the carrier temperature has two pronounced effects when the Fermi level is situated in proximity to the bulk valence band maximum where the density of states is large. First, when both topological surface state electrons and bulk holes are present, electron-hole scattering leads to a pronounced increase in resistance with increasing carrier temperature. Second, a thermally induced increase of the electron and hole carrier densities reduces the resistance again at higher temperatures. A model considering these two effects was developed, which can well reproduce the experimental results. Current heating experiments in zero-gap HgTe quantum wells and compressively strained HgTe layers are consistent with this model. These observations raise the question as to how electron-hole scattering may affect other transport properties of HgTe-based three-dimensional topological insulators, which is briefly discussed in the outlook.

The motivation for this work has been contributing a step to the advancement of technology. A next leap in technology would be the realization of a scalable quantum computer. One potential route is via topological quantum computing. A profound understanding of topological materials is thus essential. My work contributes by the investigation of the exemplary topological material HgTe. The focus lies on the understanding of the topological surface states (TSS) and new possibilities to manipulate them appropriately. Traditionally top gate electrodes are used to adjust the carrier density in such semi-conductor materials. We found that the electric field of the top gate can further alter the properties of the HgTe layer. The formation of additional massive Volkov-Pankratov states limits the accessibility of the TSS. The understanding of these states and their interplay with the TSS is necessary to appropriately design devices and to ensure their desired properties. Similarly, I observed the existence and stability of TSSs even without a bandgap in the bulk band structure in the inversion induced Dirac semi-metal phase of compressively strained HgTe. The finding of topological surface states in inversion-induced Dirac semi-metals provides a consistent and simple explanation for the observation reported for \(\text{Cd}_3\text{As}_2\).
These observations have only been possible due to the high quality of the MBE grown HgTe layers and the access of different phases of HgTe via strain engineering. As a starting point I performed Magneto-transport measurements on 67 nm thick tensilely strained HgTe layers grown on a CdTe substrate. We observed multiple transport channels in this three-dimensional topological insulator and successfully identified them. Not only do the expected topological surface states exist, but also additional massive surface states have been observed. These additional massive surface states are formed due to the electrical field applied at the top gate, which is routinely used to vary the carrier density in the HgTe layer. The additional massive surface states are called Volkov-Pankratov states after B. A. Volkov and O. A. Pankratov. They predicted the existence of similar massive surface states at the interface of materials with mutually inverted bands. We first found indications for such massive Volkov-Pankratov states in high-frequency compressibility measurements for very high electron densities in a fruitful collaboration with LPA in Paris. Magneto-transport measurements and \(k \cdot p\) calculations revealed that such Volkov-Pankratov states are also responsible for the observed whole transport. We also found indications for similar massive VPS in the electron regime, which coexist with the topological surface states. The topological surface states exist over the full investigated gate range including a regime of pure topological insulator transport. To increase the variability of the topological surface states we introduced a modulation doping layer in the buffer layer. This modulation doping layer also enabled us to separate and identify the top and bottom topological surface states.
We used the variability of the bulk band structure of HgTe with strain to engineer the band structure of choice using virtual substrates. The virtual substrates enable us to grow compressively strained HgTe layers that do not possess a bandgap, but instead linear crossing points. These layers are predicted to beDirac semi-metals. Indeed I observed also topological surface states and massive Volkov-Pankratov states in the compressively strained Dirac semi-metal phase. The observation of topological surfaces states also in the Dirac semi-metal phase has two consequences: First, it highlights that no bulk bandgap is necessary to observe topological surface states. Second, the observation of TSS also in the Dirac semi-metal phase emphasizes the importance of the underlying band inversion in this phase. I could not find any clear signatures of the predicted disjoint topological surface states, which are typically called Fermi-arcs. The presence of topological surface states and massive Volkov-Pankratov states offer a simple explanation for the observed quantum Hall effect and other two-dimensional transport phenomena in the class of inversion induced Dirac semi-metals, as \(\text{Cd}_3\text{As}_2\). This emphasizes the importance of the inherent bulk band inversion of different topological materials and provides a consistent and elegant explanation for the observed phenomena in these materials. Additionally, it offers a route to design further experiments, devices, and thus the foundation for the induction of superconductivity and thus topological quantum computing.
Another possible path towards quantum computing has been proposed based on the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly is an apparent transport anomaly that manifests itself as an additional magnetic field-driven current in three-dimensional topological semimetals with a linear crossing point in their bulk band structure. I observed the chiral anomaly in compressively strained HgTe samples and performed multiple control experiments to identify the observed reduction of the magnetoresistance with the chiral anomaly. First, the dependence of the so-called negative magnetoresistance on the angle and strength of the magnetic field has been shown to fit the expectation for the chiral anomaly. Second, extrinsic effects as scattering could be excluded as a source for the observed negative MR using samples with different mobilities and thus impurity concentrations. Third, the necessity of the linear crossing point has been shown by shifting the electrochemical potential away from the linear crossing points, which diminished the negative magnetoresistance. Fourth, I could not observe a negative magnetoresistance in the three-dimensional topological insulator phase of HgTe. These observations together prove the existence of the chiral anomaly and verify compressively strained HgTe as Dirac semi-metal. Surprisingly, the chiral anomaly is also present in unstrained HgTe samples, which constitute a semi-metal with a quadratic band touching point. This observation reveals the relevance of the Zeeman effect for the chiral anomaly due to the lifting of the spin-degeneracy in these samples. Additionally to the chiral anomaly, the Dirac semi-metal phase of compressively strained HgTe showed other interesting effects. For low magnetic fields, a strong weak-antilocalization has been observed. Such a strong weak-anti-localization correction in a three-dimensional layer is surprising and interesting. Additionally, non-trivial magnetic field strength and direction dependencies have been observed. These include a strong positive magnetoresistance for high magnetic fields, which could indicate a metal-insulator transition. On a more device-oriented note, the semi-metal phase of unstrained HgTe constitutes the lower limit of the by strain engineering adjustable minimal carrier density of the topological surface states and thus of very high mobility.
To sum up, topological surface states have been observed in the three-dimensional topological insulator phase and the Dirac semi-metal phase of HgTe. The existence and accessibility of topological surface states are thus independent of the existence of a bandgap in the bulk band structure. The topological surface states can be accompanied by massive Volkov-Pankratov states. These VPS are created by electric fields, which are routinely applied to adjust the carrier density in semiconductor devices. The theoretical predicted chiral anomaly has been observed in the Dirac semi-metal phase of HgTe. In contrast to theoretical predictions, no indications for the Fermi-arc called disjoint surface states have been observed, but instead the topological and massive Volkov-Pankratov surface states have been found. These states are thus expected for all inversion-induced topological materials.

Neue physikalische Erkenntnisse vervollständigen die Sicht auf die Welt und erschließen gleichzeitig Wege für Folgeexperimente und technische Anwendungen. Das letzte Jahrzehnt der Festkörperforschung war vom zunehmenden Fokus der theoretischen und experimentellen Erkundung topologischer Materialien geprägt. Eine fundamentale Eigenschaft ist ihre Resistenz gegenüber solchen Störungen, welche spezielle physikalische Symmetrien nicht verletzen. Insbesondere die Topologischen Isolatoren - Halbleiter mit isolierenden Volumen- sowie gleichzeitig leitenden und spinpolarisierten Oberflächenzuständen - sind vielversprechende Kandidaten zur Realisierung breitgefächerter spintronischer Einsatzgebiete. Bis zur Verwirklichung von Quantencomputern und anderer, heute noch exotisch anmutender Konzepte bedarf es allerdings ein umfassenderes Verständnis der grundlegenden, physikalischen Zusammenhänge. Diese kommen vor allem an Grenzflächen zum Tragen, weshalb oberflächensensitive Methoden bei der Entdeckung der Topologischen Isolatoren eine wichtige Rolle spielten.
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden daher strukturelle, elektronische und magnetische Eigenschaften Topologischer Isolatoren mittels Tieftemperatur-Rastertunnelmikroskopie und -spektroskopie sowie begleitenden Methoden untersucht.
Die Veränderung der Element-Ausgangskonzentration während dem Wachstum des prototypischen Topologischen Isolators Bi2Te3 führt zur Realisierung eines topologischen p-n Übergangs innerhalb des Kristalls. Bei einem spezifischen Verhältnis von Bi zu Te in der Schmelze kommt es aufgrund unterschiedlicher Erstarrungstemperaturen der Komponenten zu einer Ansammlung von Bi- und Te-reichen Gegenden an den gegenüberliegenden Enden des Kristalls. In diesen bildet sich infolge des jeweiligen Elementüberschusses durch Kristallersetzungen und -fehlstellen eine Dotierung des Materials aus. Daraus resultiert die Existenz eines Übergangsbereiches, welcher durch Transportmessungen verifiziert werden kann. Mit der räumlich auflösenden Rastertunnelmikroskopie wird diese Gegend lokalisiert und strukturell sowie elektronisch untersucht. Innerhalb des Übergangsbereiches treten charakteristische Kristalldefekte beider Arten auf - eine Defektunterdrückung bleibt folglich aus. Dennoch ist dort der Beitrag der Defekte zum Stromtransport aufgrund ihres gegensätzlichen Dotiercharakters vernachlässigbar, sodass der topologische Oberflächenzustand die maßgeblichen physikalischen Eigenschaften bestimmt. Darüber hinaus tritt der Übergangsbereich in energetischen und räumlichen Größenordnungen auf, die Anwendungen bei Raumtemperatur denkbar machen.
Neben der Veränderung Topologischer Isolatoren durch den gezielten Einsatz intrinsischer Kristalldefekte bieten magnetische Störungen die Möglichkeit zur Prüfung des topologischen Oberflächenzustandes auf dessen Widerstandsfähigkeit sowie der gegenseitigen Wechselwirkungen. Die Zeitumkehrinvarianz ist ursächlich für den topologischen Schutz des Oberflächenzustandes, weshalb magnetische Oberflächen- und Volumendotierung diese Symmetrie brechen und zu neuartigem Verhalten führen kann.
Die Oberflächendotierung Topologischer Isolatoren kann zu einer starken Bandverbiegung und einer energetischen Verschiebung des Fermi-Niveaus führen. Bei einer wohldosierten Menge der Adatome auf p-dotiertem Bi2Te3 kommt die Fermi-Energie innerhalb der Volumenzustands-Bandlücke zum Liegen. Folglich wird bei Energien rund um das Fermi-Niveau lediglich der topologische Oberflächenzustand bevölkert, welcher eine Wechselwirkung zwischen den Adatomen vermitteln kann. Für Mn-Adatome kann Rückstreuung beobachtet werden, die aufgrund der Zeitumkehrinvarianz in undotierten Topologischen Isolatoren verboten ist. Die überraschenderweise starken und fokussierten Streuintensitäten über mesoskopische Distanzen hinweg resultieren aus der ferromagnetischen Kopplung nahegelegener Adsorbate, was durch theoretische Berechnungen und Röntgendichroismus-Untersuchungen bestätigt wird. Gleichwohl wird für die Proben ein superparamagnetisches Verhalten beobachtet.
Im Gegensatz dazu führt die ausreichende Volumendotierung von Sb2Te3 mit V-Atomen zu einem weitreichend ferromagnetischen Verhalten. Erstaunlicherweise kann trotz der weitläufig verbreiteten Theorie Zeitumkehrinvarianz-gebrochener Dirac-Zustände und der experimentellen Entdeckung des Anormalen Quanten-Hall-Effektes in ähnlichen Probensystemen keinerlei Anzeichen einer spektroskopischen Bandlücke beobachtet werden. Dies ist eine direkte Auswirkung der dualen Natur der magnetischen Adatome: Während sie einerseits eine magnetisch induzierte Bandlücke öffnen, besetzen sie diese durch Störstellenresonanzen wieder. Ihr stark lokaler Charakter kann durch die Aufnahme ihrer räumlichen Verteilung aufgezeichnet werden und führt zu einer Mobilitäts-Bandlücke, deren Indizien durch vergleichende Untersuchungen an undotiertem und dotiertem Sb2Te3 bestätigt werden.

This thesis describes the growth and characterization of epitaxial MnSi thin films on Si substrates. The interest in this material system stems from the rich magnetic phase diagram resulting from the noncentrosymmetric B20 crystal structure. Here neighboring spins prefer a tilted relative arrangement in contrast to ferro- and antiferromagnets, which leads to a helical ground state where crystal and spin helix chirality are linked [IEM+85]. This link makes the characterization and control of the crystal chirality the main goal of this thesis.
After a brief description of the material properties and applied methods, the thesis itself is divided into four main parts. In the first part the advancement of the MBE growth process of MnSi on Si\((111)\) substrate as well as the fundamental structural characterization are described. Here the improvement of the substrate interface by an adjusted substrate preparation process is demonstrated, which is the basis for well ordered flat MnSi layers. On this foundation the influence of Mn/Si flux ratio and substrate temperature on the MnSi layer growth is investigated via XRD and clear boundaries to identify the optimal growth conditions are determined. The nonstoichiometric phases outside of this optimal growth window are identified as HMS and Mn\(_5\)Si\(_3\).
Additionally, a regime at high substrate temperatures and low Mn flux is discovered, where MnSi islands are growing incorporated in a Si layer, which could be interesting for further investigations as a size confinement can change the magnetic phase diagram [DBS+18]. XRD measurements demonstrate the homogeneity of the grown MnSi layers over most of the 3 inch wafer diameter and a small \(\omega\)-FWHM of about 0.02° demonstrates the high quality of the layers. XRD and TEM measurements also show that relaxation of the layers happens via misfit dislocations at the interface to the substrate.
The second part of the thesis is concerned with the crystal chirality. Here azimuthal \(\phi\)-scans of asymmetric XRD reflections reveal twin domains with a \(\pm\)30° rotation to the substrate. These twin domains seem to consist of left and right-handed MnSi, which are connected by a mirror operation at the \((\bar{1}10)\) plane. For some of the asymmetric XRD reflections this results in different intensities for the different twin domains, which reveals that one of the domains is rotated +30° and the other is rotated -30°. From XRD and TEM measurements an equal volume fraction of both domains is deduced. Different mechanisms to suppress these twin domains are investigated and successfully achieved with the growth on chiral Si surfaces, namely Si\((321)\) and Si\((531)\). Azimuthal \(\phi\)-scans of asymmetric XRD reflections demonstrate a suppression of up to 92%. The successful twin suppression is an important step in the use of MnSi for the proposed spintronics applications with skyrmions as information carriers, as discussed in the introduction.
Because of this achievement, the third part of the thesis on the magnetic properties of the MnSi thin films is not only concerned with the principal behavior, but also with the difference between twinned and twin suppressed layers. Magnetometry measurements are used to demonstrate, that the MnSi layers behave principally as expected from the literature. The analysis of saturation and residual magnetization hints to the twin suppression on Si\((321)\) and Si\((531)\) substrates and further investigations with more samples can complete this picture. For comparable layers on Si\((111)\), Si\((321)\) and Si\((531)\) the Curie-Weiss temperature is identical within 1 K and the critical field within 0.1 T.
Temperature dependent magnetoresistivity measurements also demonstrate the expected \(T^2\) behavior not only on Si\((111)\) but also on Si\((321)\) substrates. This demonstrates the successful growth of MnSi on Si\((321)\) and Si\((531)\) substrates. The latter measurements also reveal a residual resistivity of less then half for MnSi on Si\((321)\) in comparison to Si\((111)\). This can be explained with the reduced number of domain boundaries demonstrating the successful suppression of one of the twin domains. The homogeneity of the residual resistivity as well as the charge carrier density over a wide area of the Si\((111)\) wafer is also demonstrated with these measurements as well as Hall effect measurements.
The fourth part shows the AMR and PHE of MnSi depending on the angle between in plane current and magnetic field direction with respect to the crystal direction. This was proposed as a tool to identify skyrmions [YKT+15]. The influence of the higher C\(_{3\mathrm{v}}\) symmetry of the twinned system instead of the C\(_3\) symmetry of a B20 single crystal is demonstrated. The difference could serve as a useful additional tool to prove the twin suppression on the chiral substrates. But this is only possible for rotations with specific symmetry surfaces and not for the studied unsymmetrical Si\((321)\) surface. Measurements for MnSi layers on Si\((111)\) above the critical magnetic field demonstrate the attenuation of AMR and PHE parameters for increasing resistivity, as expected from literature [WC67]. Even if a direct comparison to the parameters on Si\((321)\) is not possible, the higher values of the parameters on Si\((321)\) can be explained considering the reduced charge carrier scattering from domain boundaries. Below the critical magnetic field, which would be the region where a skyrmion lattice could be expected, magnetic hysteresis complicates the analysis. Only one phase transition at the critical magnetic field can be clearly observed, which leaves the existence of a skyrmion lattice in thin epitaxial MnSi layers open.
The best method to solve this question seems to be a more direct approach in the form of Lorentz-TEM, which was also successfully used to visualize the skyrmion lattice for thin plates of bulk MnSi [TYY+12]. For the detection of in plane skyrmions, lamellas would have to be prepared for a side view, which seems in principle possible.
The demonstrated successful twin suppression for MnSi on Si\((321)\) and Si\((531)\) substrates may also be applied to other material systems.
Suppressing the twinning in FeGe on Si\((111)\) would lead to a single chirality skyrmion lattice near room temperature [HC12]. This could bring the application of skyrmions as information carriers in spintronics within reach.
Glossary:
MBE Molecular Beam Epitaxy
XRD X-Ray Diffraction
HMS Higher Manganese Silicide
FWHM Full Width Half Maximum
TEM Tunneling Electron Microscopy
AMR Anisotropic MagnetoResistance
PHE Planar Hall Effect
Bibliography:
[IEM+85] M. Ishida, Y. Endoh, S. Mitsuda, Y. Ishikawa, and M. Tanaka. Crystal Chirality and Helicity of the Helical Spin Density Wave in MnSi. II. Polarized Neutron Diffraction. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 54(8):2975, 1985.
[DBS+18] B. Das, B. Balasubramanian, R. Skomski, P. Mukherjee, S. R. Valloppilly, G. C. Hadjipanayis, and D. J. Sellmyer. Effect of size confinement on skyrmionic properties of MnSi nanomagnets. Nanoscale, 10(20):9504, 2018.
[YKT+15] T. Yokouchi, N. Kanazawa, A. Tsukazaki, Y. Kozuka, A. Kikkawa, Y. Taguchi, M. Kawasaki, M. Ichikawa, F. Kagawa, and Y. Tokura. Formation of In-plane Skyrmions in Epitaxial MnSi Thin Films as Revealed by Planar Hall Effect. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 84(10):104708, 2015.
[WC67] R. H. Walden and R. F. Cotellessa. Magnetoresistance of Nickel-Copper Single-Crystal Thin Films. Journal of Applied Physics, 38(3):1335, 1967.
[TYY+12] A. Tonomura, X. Yu, K. Yanagisawa, T. Matsuda, Y. Onose, N. Kanazawa, H. S. Park, and Y. Tokura. Real-Space Observation of Skyrmion Lattice in Helimagnet MnSi Thin Samples. Nano Letters, 12(3):1673, 2012.
[HC12] S. X. Huang and C. L. Chien. Extended Skyrmion Phase in Epitaxial FeGe(111) Thin Films. Physical Review Letters, 108(26):267201, 2012.

In this work, three different material systems comprising carbon were researched: (i) Organic polymers and small molecules, in conjunction with fullerene molecules for applications in organic photovoltaics (OPV), (ii) single walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes and (iii) silicon carbide (SiC), whose defect color centers are recently in the limelight as candidates for quantum applications. All systems were analyzed using the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy.
In the OPV chapter, first the intrinsic parameters and orientations of high spin excitons were analyzed in the materials P3HT, PTB7 and DIP. Specifically the influence of ordering in these organic systems was adressed. The second part of the OPV chapter is concerned with triplet generation by electron back transfer in the high-efficiency OPV material combination PTB7:PC71BM.
The carbon nanotube chapter first shows the way to the first unambiguous proof of the existence of triplet excitons in semiconducting (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) by ODMR spectroscopy. A model for exciton kinetics, and also orientation and intrinsic parameters were propoesed.
The last part of this work is devoted to spin centers in silicon carbide (SiC). After a brief introduction, the spin multiplicity of the V2 and V3 silicon vacancies, and also of a Frenkel pair and an unassigned defect UD in 6H SiC, and of the V2 vacancy and the Frenkel pair in 4H SiC, was shown to be S=3/2. The spin polarized pumping of the 3/2 manifold of the quartet ground state of the silicon vacancies allows stimulated microwave emission. Furthermore, in 6H SiC, the UD and Frenkel pair were shown to have a large dependence of their intrinsic zero field interaction parameters on the temperature, while the vacancies are temperature independent. The application of the UD and Frenkel pair as temperature sensor, and of the vacancies as a vector magnetic field sensor is discussed.

Gegenstand dieser Arbeit sind Transportuntersuchungen an nanoelektronischen Bauelementen, wobei der Schwerpunkt in der Analyse von nichtlinearen Transporteigenschaften hybrider Strukturen stand. Zum Einsatz kamen auf GaAs basierende Heterostrukturen mit zum Beispiel kleinen Metallkontakten, die zu Symmetriebrechungen führen. Die Untersuchungen wurden bei tiefen Temperaturen bis hin zu Raumtemperatur durchgeführt. Es kamen zudem magnetische Felder zum Einsatz. So wurden zum einen der asymmetrische Magnetotransport in Nanostrukturen mit asymmetrischer Gateanordnung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Phononstreuung analysiert, zum anderen konnte ein memristiver Effekt in InAs basierenden Strukturen studiert werden. Des Weiteren konnte ein beachtlicher Magnetowiderstand in miniaturisierten CrAu-GaAs Bauelementen beobachtet werden, der das Potential besitzt, als Basis für extrem miniaturisierte Sensoren für den Betrieb bei Raumtemperatur eingesetzt zu werden.